the pathways of oxidative phosphorylation
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The Pathways of Oxidative Phosphorylation. By A- aron L. and Jay-Crisp. Whole Show. The Pathway of Electron Transport. The electron transport chain is a collection of molecules embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria in Eukaryotic cells. Most components in a chain are protein

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the pathway of electron transport
The Pathway of Electron Transport
  • The electron transport chain is a collection of molecules embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria in Eukaryotic cells.
    • Most components in a chain are protein
    • Exists in multi-protein complexes Number 1-4
  • Bound to these proteins are prosthetic groups and these are non-protein components essential for catalytic enzymes.
atp molecular mill
ATP Molecular Mill
  • H+ Ions flowing down their gradient enter a half channel in a stator, which is anchored in the membrane.
  • H+ Ions enter binding sites within a rotor, changing the shape of each subunit so that the rotor spins within the membrane.
  • Each H+ Ion makes one complete turn before leaving the rotor and passing through a second half channel in the stator into the mitochondrial matrix.
  • Spinning of the rotor causes as internal rod to spin as well. This rod extends like a stalk into the knob below it, which is held stationary by part of the stator.
  • Turning of the rod activates catalytic sites in the knob that produce ATP from ADB and P
yo dog what s the pathway to e trans
Yo Dog, What’s the Pathway to E-Trans.
  • Most of the remaining electron carriers between ubiquinone and oxygen are proteins call Cytochromes.
    • Prosthetic group, called a heme group
      • Has an Iron Atom that accepts and donates electrons.
  • The electron transport chain has several types of cytochromes each a different protein with a slightly different electron carrying heme group.
  • The electron transport chain does not produce ATP directly
    • Breaks down larger molecules in a Nine Fold Process until they becomes small enough, producing ATP as a product and H2O as a Bi-Product which then leads to CHEMIOSIS
chemiosmosis1
Chemiosmosis
  • Populating the inner membrane of the mitochondrion or the prokaryotic plasma membrane are many copies of a protein complex, Called ATP Synthase
    • The enzyme that makes ATP from ADP and Inorganic Phosphate
    • ADP+ P = ATP
chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation
Chemiosmosis and Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • There is an electrochemical gradient across the cristae
  • Two Parts:
    • Difference in charge
    • Difference in Concentration
electrochemical gradient
Electrochemical Gradient

The diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of an ion across a membrane and the ions tendency to move relative to the membrane potential….

chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation1
Chemiosmosis and Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • The Inner membrane is impermeable to protons.
  • The protons are forced through special proton channels that are coupled with ATP synthase
chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation2
Chemiosmosis and Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • The electrochemical gradient produces a proton-motive force (PMF) that moves the protons through this ATPase complex.
  • Each time a proton comes through the ATPase complex, the free energy of the electrochemical gradient is reduced and this energy is used to create ATP from ADP + P in the matrix.
who found this out
Who found this out?
  • Peter Mitchell found all this out in 1961 and coined the term chemiosmosis because the energy that drives ATP production comes from the osmosis of protons. It took a long time for his theory to be accepted. He finally got his Nobel Prize in 1978.
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