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ELECTRONS AND THEIR LOCATION. ELECTRON ADDRESSES. RULES TO REMEMBER. HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE –Cannot know the exact location of an electron. Fundamentally impossible to know both the location and momentum/velocity of an electron at the same time.

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Electrons and their location

ELECTRONS AND THEIR LOCATION

ELECTRON ADDRESSES


Rules to remember
RULES TO REMEMBER

  • HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE –Cannot know the exact location of an electron. Fundamentally impossible to know both the location and momentum/velocity of an electron at the same time.

  • The quantum mechanical model merely suggests the probability of the electron location.

  • No circular orbits – Sorry Bohr!

  • Instead: orbitals - the 3-dimensional region is which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom


Aufbau principle
Aufbau Principle

  • Electrons fill the lowest possible energy level.

  • Energy levels correspond to period number on the Periodic Table.

  • How many energy levels are there?


Orbitals
orbitals

  • Textbook definition: the 3-dimensional region is which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom

  • s on page 371

  • p on page 372

  • d on page 374


Pauli exclusion principle
Pauli Exclusion Principle

  • No more than two (2) electrons in an orbital.


Hund s rule s
Hund’s Rule(s)

  • Orbitals of equal energy must fill singly before doubling.

    • (ex. all d’s must fill with 1 electron each before the second electron can fill in – like dealing cards)

  • All electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin direction

  • Pairs of electrons in the same orbital have opposite spin.


Quantum numbers
QUANTUM NUMBERS

  • Describe the electron’s “address”

  • 1stQuantum is the principle quantum – describes the energy level, or period.

  • 2nd Quantum describes the shape of the orbitals. s,p,d,f

  • 3rd Quantum describes the orientation of the orbital

  • 4th Quantum describes the spin of the electron


  • What do you think the 5th energy level looks like?

  • The pattern stops – it looks like the 4th energy level

  • What about 6 & 7?


Quick quiz
Quick Quiz

  • A. How many electrons can the p orbitals hold if filled?

  • B. How many kinds of orbitals are in the 4th energy level?

  • C. What are the orbitals of the 2nd energy level?

  • D. How many f orbitals are there?

  • E. How many electrons can any one orbital hold?

  • F. At most, how many electrons in the 2nd energy level?


Orbital diagrams or orbital configurations
Orbital Diagrams or Orbital Configurations

  • Use boxes and arrows to represent electrons in various energy levels.

  • Boxes must be labeled with regard to energy level and orbitals.


Orbital configuration

H

orbital configuration

1s


Orbital configuration1

H

He

orbital configuration

1s

1s


Orbital configuration2

H

He

Li

orbital configuration

1s

1s

2s

1s


Orbital configuration3

H

He

Li

Be

orbital configuration

1s

1s

2s

1s

1s

2s


Orbital configuration4

B

C

orbital configuration

1s

2s

2p

1s

2s

2p


Orbital configuration5

N

orbital configuration

1s

2s

2p


Practice
Practice

  • Draw orbital diagrams for elements # 4,6,9,15, and 26


Lewis dot structures
Lewis Dot Structures

  • Element symbol represents atom nucleus and inner electrons.

  • Dots around the symbol represent valence (outermost energy level) electrons.




Lewis dot structure2
Lewis dot structure

1

2

3

Symbol


Lewis dot structure3
Lewis dot structure

1

2

3

Symbol

4


Lewis dot structure4
Lewis dot structure

1

2

3

5

Symbol

4


Lewis dot structure5
Lewis dot structure

1

2

5

3

Symbol

6

4


Lewis dot structure6
Lewis dot structure

1

2

5

3

Symbol

6

4

7


Lewis dot structure7
Lewis dot structure

1

2

3

5

Symbol

6

8

4

7


Practice1
practice

  • Draw Lewis Dot structures for elements 1-11


Bohr models
Bohr Models

  • Use concentric circles to represent energy levels and the number of electrons in each.



Bohr model1
Bohr model

Li

2-

1-


Bohr model2
Bohr model

Ne

2-

8-


Bohr model3
Bohr model

S

2-

8-

6-


Bohr model4
Bohr model

K

2-

1-

8-

8-


Practice2
Practice

  • Draw Bohr models for elements # 2, 3, 5, 9, and 16


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