Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project
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Palaiseau - FRANCE. Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators : the SAPHIR project. Victor Malka [email protected] COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009). UMR 7639. http://loa.ensta.fr/. In collaboration with :.

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Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators : the SAPHIR project

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Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Palaiseau - FRANCE

Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators : the SAPHIR project

Victor Malka

[email protected]

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

In collaboration with :

A. Flacco, F. Sylla, A. Guemnie-Tafo

Laboratoire d’Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-Ecole Polytechnique,

CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau, France

E. Lefebvre, R. Nuter, M. Carrie

CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, France

Thanks to Prof. A. Smith, S. Bulanov, C. Ma, H. Daido

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Summary

Part 1 : Short review of laser produced proton beam

Part 2 : On the use of proton beam for oncology

Part 3 : The SAPHIR project

Part 4 :Conclusion and perspectives

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Protons acceleration with lasers :

Static electric fields

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Protons are accelerated from both side :

Courtesy of E. D’Humières

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

10

10

Proton number (/MeV)

9

10

8

10

7

10

0

2

4

6

8

10

Protons energy (MeV)

6

10

10 Hz laser at LOA

Experimental results : Maxwellian spectra

V. Malka et al., Appl. Phys. Lett.

83, 15 (2003), Med. Phys. 31, 6 (2004)

Robson et al., Nature Physics 3 (2007)

M. Borghesi :20 MeV, 1020 W/cm2, 50 fs laser, D. Neely QM?

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Experimental results :

quasi mono energetic spectra

1,2

Simulation

Experiment

1,0

0,8

0,6

proton counts [a.u.]

0,4

0,2

0,0

0,0

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,0

2,5

proton energy [MeV]

  • Schwoerer, H. et al., Nature, 439 (2006)

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

3D Simulations : quasi mono energetic

Spectra @ 170 MeW with PW laser

TARGET

Gold

pe /  = 3

0.5mm

10mm

5mm

protons

0.03mm

code

pe /  = 0.53

  • Schwoerer, H. et al., Nature, 439 (2006)

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

3D Simulations: Radiation Pressure

Dominated regime with Linear Polarization

I=1023W/cm2, Target thickness = 1mm, Ne=5 1022cm-3

Esirkepov, Bulanov, PRL 04

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

2 D Simulations* : Radiation Pressure

Dominated regime with Circular Polarization

I=3x1020W/cm2, Ne=1.5 1022cm-3

Target thickness = 0.2 mm

S. Pukhov : 3D

Results are not so good

Macchi A et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 165003

Robinson A P L et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013021

*Klimo O et al 2008 Phys. Rev. ST-AB 11 031301

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Summary

Part 1 : Short review of laser produced proton beam

Part 2 : On the use of proton beam for oncology

Part 3 : The SAPHIR project

Part 4 :Conclusion and perspectives

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Causes of local cancer failure

Causes of Local Cancer Failure

  • The primary cause for local failure is our inability

  • to deliver a letal dose of radiation to the tumour cells.

  • The reasons for this include :

    • We cannot determine the exact location and extend

    • tumor cells and their route to spread

    • -Inadequate treatment.

    • -Proximity of dose limiting normal tissues and organs

    • (brains stem, optics, lung, gut, etc.)

    • Less that optimum dose distribution of the radiation

    • beam used for treatment.

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Comparison of the dose distribution

x ray

100

g ray

80

neutron

60

Relative dose [%]

40

proton

20

tumor

carbon ion

0

0

5

10

15

Depth in water [cm]

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

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Protons provide superior dose distributions

Protons provide superior dose distributions

Protons Stop

Photons don’t stop

The « optimum » dose distribution delivers

100% dose to the tumour target and not to

critical normal tissues.

Proton beams deliver dose distribution that are more optimum than those from photon beams

This should result in improved clinical outcomes when proton beams are used.

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Protons provide superior dose distributions1

Protons provide superior dose distributions

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Protontherapy Facilities in the World

  • 26 facilities worldwide treating patients

  • 6 in Japan (4 hospital-based) : Chiban, NCC East-Kashiva, HIBMC-Hyogo, PMRC-Tsukuba, WERC-Wakasa, Shizuoka,Cancer Center

  • 6 in the United States (4 hospital-based) : LLUMC, MGH, MDACC, Univ. of Florida, Univ. of Indiana, UC Davis

  • 10 in Europe/Russia

  • 4 additional facilites (UK, China, Korea, South Africa)

  • > 55,000 patients have been treated with proton beams

  • 22 additional Institutions worldwide are developing new facilities

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Protontherapy Facilities in the World

TREATING : PROTONS 26, CARBON IONS 3

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

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Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Protontherapy center : large & expensive & performant

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Accelerators used in protonthrapy

Accelerators used in protonthrapy

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

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Accelerators specifications protontherapy

Accelerators specifications protontherapy

  • Diameter : 3,4 m

  • Weigth 60 tons

  • « self » radioprotection 

  • Courant max : 500 nA (3. 1012 p.s-1)

  • Output Energiy : 250 MeV

  • Extraction efficiency : 80 %

  • Emittance : few p-mm.mrad

  • 95 % reliability (garanty by the compagny)

  • 6 compagnies in the world

  • Cost ~10 M€

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Accelerators specifications protonthrapy

Accelerators specifications protonthrapy

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Summary

Part 1 : Short review of laser produced proton beam

Part 2 : On the use of proton beam for oncology

Part 3 : The SAPHIR project

Part 4 :Conclusion and perspectives

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Need for improvement in cancer treatment

Need for improvement in cancer treatment

Tumor Site

Head/Neck

Gastrointestinal

Gynecologic

Genitourinary

Lung

Breast

Lymphoma

Skin, Bone, Soft Tissue

Brain

Deaths due to local failure of treatment

Deaths/year

22,000

135,000

28,000

55,000

160,000

41,000

20,000

15,000

12,000

13,200 (60%)

54,000 (40%)

14,000 (50%)

27,500 (50%)

40,000 (25%)

4,920 (12%)

2,400 (12%)

5,000 (33%)

10,800 (90%)

Total 488,000 171,820 (35%)

350,000 new cancer patients per year in the US

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Indications for protontherapy in france

Indications for protontherapy in France

  • Very selective prescription because of the cost and of the weight of the infrastrucutre. Determined by the need of having an high balistic precision.

Medical impact

Tumour localisation

Nb of patient per year

Total

Major prescriptions

Eyes tumours

400 / 450

Neuro-oncology and Rachis

2.000 / 2.500

Childs and adolescent

300 / 500

2.800 / 3.550

Sarcomes retro-peritony

80 / 100

other possible prescriptions

ORL

500 / 1.000

Lungs (poumons)

3.000 / 4.000

4.500 / 6.500

other cancers

1.000 / 1.500

Potential prescriptions

Some prostate cancers

2.500 / 3.000

3.000 / 4.000

Re-irradiations

500 / 1.000

Estimation of the number of patients to be treated per year in France

10.300 / 14.050

  • recent publication: protontherapy should be beneficial for 15% of patients wich requires

  • radiotherapy treatment (i.e. 27.000 patients per year in France)

  • Capacity of protontherapy in France : 600 patients per year (800 en 2011).

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


The raisons of a non satisfied medical need

The raisons of a non satisfied medical need

-2 protontherapy center in France (Orsay et Nice)

-30 centres in « modern » countries

-Limitation due :

  • Cost of the installation : 80 à 140 M€

  • Size of the installation : 1000 to 2000 m²

Market in progress but still limited by the cost and the size of the installation Estimation of the needed protontherapy center in the world (based on the hypothesis that 15% of patients are treated by proton beam) :

  • In Europe : 300

  • In USA : 150

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

The SAPHIR/PROPULSE Project

Scientific Challenges for an alternative technique

  • Energy max (150-200 MeV )

  • Modulate and control the energy spectrum

  • Stable and repoducible

  • Compact

Economic Challenges

  • Reduce the cost

  • Reduce the infrastructure size

  • Reduce the radioprotection cost &size

  • Optimize the energy distribution

Project Partners:

G. RIBOULET, Amplitude Tech., PDGH. KAFROUNI, Dosisoft, PDGP. BOVAL, Propulse SAS, PDGY. DEMAY, ENSTA, DirecteurP. BEY, Inst. Curie, Dir. de l’Hôpital CurieG. LENOIR, IGR, Dir. de la RechercheD. NORMAND, CEA, Dir. SPAM-IRAMISR. FERRAND, CPO-Curie, Resp. Tech.

Goal of the project :

  • To develop a demonstrator (pre prototype)

  • Machine cost less than 10-20 M€

  • Total size : <1000 m²

Phase 1 : 6ME

Phase 2 : 14 ME

Phase 3 : Prototype

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

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Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Potential advantages of laser plasma

accelerators

Wall thicknesses of 3 m

Radioprotection is strongly reduced

Laser beam transport

No need of radioprotection

Proton beam transport

+ radioprotection

70 m

X

Cyclotron or synchrotron (activation)

100 to 400 tons, power> 500 kW

Laser chain, weight : 1 ton

Power : 10 kW

Cost : 10 ME

Gantry :10m, >120 tons, 10 MEuros

Beam delivering at the end

Adjustable beam parameters

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

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Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Russia: courtesy of Prof. S. Bulanov

PRESENT-DAY SYSTEM

SUGGESTION

Протонный ускоритель

  • General scheme of the GANTRY:

  • bending magnets;

  • quadrupole lenses;

  • couch (positioner);

  • dose delivery and monitoring system;

  • procedure room;

  • concrete shielding.

  • Magneto-optic system must be precisely

  • manufactured and capable of being

  • rotated as a whole (~100 tons ! ).

GANTRY IS NOT REQUIRED

DOUBLE-LAYER TARGET

S. Bulanov,V.Khoroshkov, PPHR 5/2002

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

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Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Development of Laser-Accelerated Proton Accelerators for Cancer Therapy USA

Courtesy of Prof C-M Ma, Department of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, USA

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Summary

Part 1 : Short review of laser produced proton beam

Part 2 : On the use of proton beam for oncology

Part 3 : The SAPHIR project

Part 4 :Conclusion and perspectives

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


The concurrent dielectric wall accelerators

The concurrent : Dielectric Wall Accelerators

An electric field propagates down

the bore of the accelerator pushing

the proton « packet » in front of it

250 MeV protons in 2 meters

The goal is to have a full scale

prototype operational in 4-5 years

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

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Dielectric wall accelerators artistic view

Dielectric Wall Accelerators : artistic view

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

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Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Industrial markert for accelerators:

Total accelerators sales increase more than 10%/year

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Laser based protontherapy projectsaround the world

  • Projet Fox Chase Center (USA)

  • LIBRA (UK consortium)

  • Dresden (Germany) : OnCOOPtics

  • MPQ (Germany)

  • JAERI (Japon): « Medical laser Valley »: PMRC

  • Russia

  • Italy (Bologna, Prof. G. Turchetti)

  • Etc…?

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators the saphir project

Conclusions

  • Proton beam are produced by plasma accelerators :

    • Stability has been improved by improving the laser contrast 

    • They produce quasi monoenergetic beam 

    • Peak energy still moderated (no evolution in 6 years) : 12MeV with 10 Hz laser, 70 MeV with PW large scale laser 

    • Number of proton per second can be a problem ?

    • Target fabrication and alignement at high repetition rate ?

    • Biological response with high current dose?

  • Proton beam are produced by plasma accelerators :

    • Stability has been improved by improving the laser contrast 

    • They produce quasi monoenergetic beam 

    • Peak energy still moderated (no evolution in 6 years) : 12MeV with 10 Hz laser, 70 MeV with PW large scale laser : 20 MeV with 50fs 

    • Number of proton per second can be a problem ?

    • Target fabrication and alignement at high repetition rate ? In progress (LIBRA)

    • Biological response with high current dose?

V. Malka et al., Nature Physics 2008

COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia , June 8-12 (2009)

UMR 7639

http://loa.ensta.fr/


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