D r a f t
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 29

D r a f t PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 57 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

D r a f t. Life Cycle Assessment A product-oriented method for sustainability analysis UNEP LCA Training Kit Module d – Inventory analysis. D r a f t. ISO 14040 framework. Source: ISO 14040. Life cycle inventory analysis.

Download Presentation

D r a f t

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


D r a f t

Life Cycle AssessmentA product-oriented methodfor sustainability analysisUNEP LCA Training KitModule d – Inventory analysis


D r a f t

ISO 14040 framework

Source: ISO 14040


Life cycle inventory analysis

  • ISO: Phase of life cycle assessment involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs, for a given product system throughout its life cycle

    • International Standard ISO 14041

    • Technical Report ISO/TR 14049

  • The second phase of an LCA

    • LCI


D r a f t

  • Economy-environment system boundary

  • Flow diagram

  • Format and data categories

  • Data quality

  • Data collection and relating data to unit processes

  • Data validation

  • Cut-off and data estimation

  • Multifunctionality and allocation

  • Calculation

Contents


Economy-environment system boundary (1)

  • Demarcation between what is included in the product system and what is excluded

  • Each product/material/service should be followed until it has been translated into elementary flows (emissions, natural resource extractions, land use, …)


Economy-environment system boundary (2)

  • Example:

    • upstream: TV  transformer  copper wire  copper  copper ore

    • upstream: TV  electricity  high-voltage electricity  coal

    • downstream: TV  electronic equipment waste  removal of precious and recyclable materials  dump site


Economy-environment system boundary (3)

D r a f t

small system boundary

wide system boundary


Flow diagram (1)

  • Graphical representation of structure product system

  • Showing the interdependence of economic processes

  • Can be organized as hierarchical (multi-level) flow diagrams


Flow diagram (2)

  • Simple rules, consistently applied:

    • process = box

    • economic flow = arrow

    • no environmental flows

    • no numbers

coal

electricity production

electricity

generator

fly ash


D r a f t

Flow diagram (3)

equipment

steel

coal mining

generator production

coal

generator

electricity production

product system

fly ash

system boundary

electricity

fly ash treatment

reference flow

gypsum


Format and data categories (1)

  • General considerations:

    • processes have inputs and outputs

    • processes have economic flows and environmental/elementary flows

    • several types of each (e.g., materials, energy, atmospheric emissions)

    • symmetry in economic flows


D r a f t

Format and data categories (2)


Format and data categories (3)

  • Several standards for data exchange:

    • ISO 14048

    • Spold/EcoSpold

    • Spine

    • UNEP/SETAC

    • ELCD (European Commission)


Format and data categories (4)

  • More detailed standardisation:

    • representing numbers (1.2E-3, 0,0012)

    • choice of units (kg, mg, g, lbs, tonne)

    • language/character set (English, German, Chinese)

    • choice of names (carbon dioxide, CO2)

    • codes (SIC, NACE, CAS, EINECS)

    • other info (uncertainties, missing values)


Data quality

  • Crucial to address data quality

    • precision

    • completeness

    • representativeness (temporal, geographical, technology)

    • consistency

    • reproducibility

  • No standardised method for overall assessment of data quality available


Data collection and relating data to unit processes

  • Different ways to obtain data

    • Primary data collected on-site

      • measurements

      • interviews

      • annual reports

    • Secondary data from generic sources

      • LCA databases

      • previous LCA-studies

      • IOA data


Data validation

  • Errors are easily introduced …

    • errors in measurements

    • errors in data entry

    • errors with units (liter versus gallon)

    • errors with prefixes (mg versus mcg)

    • errors with nomenclature (N2O versus NO2)

  • … and can sometimes easily be detected

    • mass and energy balances

    • comparative analysis of different data sources


Cut-off and data estimation (1)

equipment

steel

coal mining

?????

D r a f t

cut-off flows

coal

generator

electricity production

fly ash

electricity

fly ash treatment

gypsum


Cut-off and data estimation (2)

equipment

steel

D r a f t

coal mining

?????

coal

generator

electricity production

fly ash

electricity

fly ash treatment

gypsum


Cut-off and data estimation (3)

  • Problem

    • many data needed

    • limited time and budget

  • Possible solutions

    • cut-off certain flows

    • provide a rough estimation

    • difference analysis


Multifunctionality and allocation (1)

D r a f t

  • Many processes produce more than one function:

coal

electricity production

electricity

heat

generator

fly ash


Multifunctionality and allocation (2)

  • Typology I:

    • co-production

    • combined waste treatment

    • recycling

  • Typology II:

    • joint production

    • combined production


Multifunctionality and allocation (3)

equipment

steel

D r a f t

coal mining

generator production

  • What to do with the extra heat?

    • accept it as an extra reference flow

    • get rid of it by an extra modeling step

coal

generator

electricity production

fly ash

heat

electricity

fly ash treatment

gypsum


Multifunctionality and allocation (3)

  • Problem

    • whenever a product system needs product 1, it also produces product 2

  • Possible solutions

    • more refined data collection

    • system expansion

    • substitution

    • partitioning (=allocation)

    • surplus


Multifunctionality and allocation (3)

  • (More refined data collection)

    • … not really allocation, but more re-iteration of data collection

  • System expansion

    • add extra function(s) to the functional unit

    • … but are you still doing the LCA of a product?


Multifunctionality and allocation (4)

  • Substitution method

    • defining an “avoided” process with subsequent “avoided” interventions/impacts

    • … but which process is avoided?

  • Partitioning method

    • effectively splitting the multifunctional process into several monofunctional processes

    • … but what basis for splitting?

  • (Surplus method)

    • ignoring co-products


Multifunctionality and allocation (5)

  • Allocation according to ISO

  • Wherever possible, allocation should be avoided by:

    • dividing the unit process to be allocated into two or more sub-processes and collecting the input and output data related to these sub-processes;

    • expanding the product system to include the additional functions related to the co-products

  • Partition inputs and outputs of the system between its different products or functions in a way which reflects the underlying physical relationships between them

  • Partition input and output data between co-products in proportion to the economic value of the products.


Calculation (1)

  • Relating unit processes to reference flow(s)

    • Based on linear scaling of processes

    • Take account for (feedback) loops

    • Matrix procedure available

  • But calculation sometimes fails …

    • missing processes

    • multifunctional processes


Calculation (2)

  • Example of an inventory table


  • Login