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20 th Century Latin America. >1 political party Universal suffrage (all adults). DEMOCRACY. Free Elections. High levels of education & literacy Economic security Freedoms of speech, press & assembly. Citizen Participation. All citizens equal before the law Shared national identity

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20 th century latin america

20th Century Latin America


Democracy

DEMOCRACY

Free Elections

  • High levels of education & literacy

  • Economic security

  • Freedoms of speech, press &

  • assembly

Citizen Participation

  • All citizens equal before the law

  • Shared national identity

  • Protection of individual rights

  • (e.g., religion)

  • Representatives elected by people

Majority Rule w/

Minority Rights

  • Gov’t based on tradition & law

  • Widespread civics education

  • Acceptance of majority decisions

  • Shared belief no one is above law

Constitutional Gov’t


Mexico

Following Mexican Revolution, government passed Constitution of 1917

1920-1934 military generals elected president & National Revolutionary Partycreated

1934-1940 President Cardenas

Promoted labor rights

Carried out land reform

Nationalized oil industry

Mexico


Mexico cont

1946 name change  Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

Election fraud ensured gov’t control

Severe economic problems (lack of jobs, land and huge foreign debt)

1968 – Student protest at Aztec ruins resulted in hundreds dead

1994 – Chiapas revolt (Zapatistas) led armed revolt for social & economic reforms (esp. for Maya)

2000 – PRI lost Presidential election to Vincente Fox (PAN)

Mexico (cont.)


Argentina

1946 – 1955 Juan Peron (former milt.) est. a dictatorship w/ wife Eva (“Evita”) until shortly after her death in 1952

Lots of social welfare programs

Limited foreign-owned business w/ import substitution (local manufacturers produce goods at home to replace imported goods)

Limited freedoms

Argentina


Argentina cont

1955 milt. coup  by mid-1970 economy was in ruins & terrorism was on the rise

1976 milt. coup by Lt. Gen. Jorge Rafael Videla seized power & imposed martial law  state terrorism led to the disappearance of 20,000 “desaparesidos”

1983 Raul Alfonsin elected President  democracy restored, but economic problems persist despite

1989 Carlos Menem (Peronist) → econ. problems

1999 Fernando de la Rua → resigned in 2001 (econ. problems)

May 2003 – Nestor Kirchner (Peronist) elected & first time that econ. has seen a turn around – his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner elected 2007

Argentina (cont.)


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