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EOC Final Review. SHORT-TERM (quick) ENERGY. 1. BENEDICTS SOLUTION. 1. SUGAR. 2. STARCH. 1. IODINE SOLUTION. 1 GLYCEROL & 3 FATTY ACIDS. LONG-TERM (quick) ENERGY. BROWN PAPER BAG TEST. MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS IN THE BODY. AMINO ACIDS. BIURET’S SOLUTION. NUCLEOTIDE

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slide2

SHORT-TERM (quick) ENERGY

1. BENEDICTS SOLUTION

1. SUGAR

2. STARCH

1. IODINE SOLUTION

1 GLYCEROL & 3 FATTY ACIDS

LONG-TERM (quick) ENERGY

BROWN PAPER BAG TEST

MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS IN THE BODY

AMINO ACIDS

BIURET’S SOLUTION

NUCLEOTIDE

(1 phosphate, 1 sugar, 1 nitrogen base)

HOLD GENETIC INFORMATION

HOLD RECIPE TO MAKE PROTEINS

1. ALL LIVING THINGS

2. DNA FINGERPRINTING

slide3

PROTEINS

AMINO

ACIDS

A

I

J

D

H

E

G

C

F

B

ALL PROTEINS!!!!!

slide4

BOTH

Stores ALL of the important information for the cell

Decides what comes in and out of cell

BOTH

Extra support and protection for plant cells

PLANTS ONLY

Provides energy for the cell (ATP)

BOTH

Plants have 1 LARGE vacuole

BOTH

Stores material

Animals have multiple small ones

Photosynthesis to make food for plant (glucose)

PLANTS ONLY

Makes proteins

(site of protein synthesis)

BOTH

slide5

PLANT

ANIMAL

CELL MEMBRANE

NUCLEUS

RIBOSOMES

RIBOSOMES

VACUOLE

CELL

WALL

CELL MEMBRANE

MITOCHONDRIA

CHLOROPLAST

slide6

CELL WALL

CHLOROPLAST

VACUOLE (large)

PROKARYOTIC

EUKARYOTIC

NO NUCLEUS

HAS A NUCLEUS

NO MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES (ONLY RIBOSOMES)

HAS MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES

PLASMIDS (circular DNA)

DNA IN NUCLEUS (in chromosomes)

LARGER, COMPLEX, YOUNGER

SMALL, SIMPLE, OLDER

unit 3 reminders
Unit 3 Reminders:
  • Cell specialization/differentiation:
    • Where do all cell originally come from (what type of cell)?
    • Do all cells have the same DNA?
    • Do all cells have the same function (job)?
    • What makes a muscle cell and a nerve cell different?
    • REMEMBER: all cells have the same DNA, but different jobs! The only difference are the GENES that are turned on or off in each cell – this determines their job!
slide8

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

LOW

HIGH

LOW

PROTEIN

LOW

HIGH

PROTEIN

slide9

YES

NO

HIGH to LOW

LOW to HIGH

transport reminders
Transport Reminders:
  • ALWAYS draw you box-circle model
  • When the molecules CANNOT move it is OSMOSIS
    • WATER moves high to low
    • Use the salt concentration. Subtract from 100% (inside and outside). The left remaining amount is the water concentration. Move the water from the high concentration to the low concentration.

3. If water moves…

    • OUT = the cell will SHRINK or SHRIVEL
    • IN = the cell will SWELL or BURST
slide11

20% salt

LOW (water)

Water will move out of the cell and it will SHRINK

80% water

100% water

0% salt

HIGH (water)

100% water

HIGH (water)

0% salt

Water will move into of the cell and it will SWELL

20% salt

80% water

LOW (water)

slide13

70% water

L

90% water

H

90% water

90% water

SHRINK

EQUILLIBRIUM

98% water

H

90% water

L

SWELL

real life application of osmosis
Real life application of osmosis…
  • What happens when you don’t water your plants…

The VACUOLE loses water (water leaves the cell), so the cell SHRINKS or SHRIVELS, causing the plant to wilt and die.

slide15

ENZYME

ENZYME

PRODUCTS

SUBSTRATE

(reactant)

ENZYME-

SUBSTRATE

COMPLEX

ACTIVE SITE

slide16

PROTEINS

THE SHAPE OF THE ACTIVE SITE

YES – ENZYMES ARE REUSED FOR THE SAME SPECIFIC TYPE OF REACTIONS, UNLESS THE ACTIVE SITE IS DENATURED (the shape is changed).

pH AND TEMPERATURE CAN DENATURE THE ACTIVE SITE OF THE ENZYME. IF THE ACTIVE SITE CHANGES SHAPE, THE ENZYME CAN NO LONGER PERFORM AT AN OPTIMAL LEVEL AND MAY STOP WORKING.

slide17

ACID

3

9

BASE

slide18

SUN (energy) + CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) + WATER (H2O)  OXYGEN (O2) + GLUCOSE (C6H12O6)

CHLOROPLAST

CO2

O2

slide19

OXYGEN (O2) + GLUCOSE (C6H12O6)  36 ATP + CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) + WATER (H2O)

MITOCHONDRIA

slide20

AEROBIC REPIRATION USES OXYGEN AND CREATES 36 ATP

ANAEROBIC REPIRATION DOES NOT USE OXYGEN AND CREATES 2 ATP

IN ANIMAL MUSCLE

Remember: FERMENTATION is another name for ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

IN YEAST AND BACTERIA

THE PRODUCTS ARE: 2 ATP, CARBON DIOXIDE, and ETHYL ALCOHOL

slide21

SUN going IN

WATER going IN

OXYGEN being RELEASED

slide22

C

T

G

G

C

T

SUGAR

slide23

CGA

GAC

Arg-

Asp-

3 mRNA letters (nitrogen bases)

slide24

RIBOSE

DEOXYRIBOSE

A, G, C, T

A, G, C, U

1 (single helix)

2 (double helix)

NUCLEUS & CYTOPLASM

NUCLEUS

DELIVERS GENETIC MESSAGES TO MAKE PROTEINS

HOLDS GENETIC INFORMATION TO CODE FOR PROTEINS

PEPTIDE BONDS

slide25

PROTEINS

TRANSCRIPTON

TRANSLATION

TRANSPORT DNA MESSAGE FROM NUCLEUS TO RIBOSOME

READ mRNA MESSAGE (anticodon) AND BRING CORRECT AMINO ACID TO THE RIBOSOME

STORES GENETIC INFORMATION FOR LIFE

MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS IN BODY (health, repair, communication, digestion, speed up reactions)

mRNA

NUCLEUS

CYTOPLASM

RIBOSOME

tRNA

PROTEIN

ACID

AMINO

TRUE

EVERY CELL HAS THE SAME DNA, BUT A DIFFERENT JOB. THE DIFFERENT JOBS ARE DETERMINED BY THE GENES THAT ARE TURNED ON OR OFF IN A CELL.

slide26

SEXUAL

ASEXUAL

2N = DIPLOID

2N = DIPLOID

2N = DIPLOID

N = HAPLOID

2

1

2

4

50 chromosomes

25 chromosomes

BEFORE CELL DIVISION

BEFORE 1st CELL DIVISION

NO

YES

YES

NO

YES

YES

YES

YES

NO

YES

slide27

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS

MEIOSIS

BOTH!

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS

GROWTH

REPAIR

REPLACING DEAD OR WORN OUT CELLS

slide28

C

Interphase= DNA Replication

INTERPHASE

Prophase = chromosomes form; nucleus breaks down; spindle fibers appear

B

ANAPHASE

(away)

PROPHASE

(first)

E

Metaphase = chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

Anaphase = chromosomes pulled apart by spindle fibers

A

TELOPHASE

(2 new cells)

METAPHASE

(middle)

Telophase= nucleus reforms; cytoplasm divides; 2 new cells

D

MEIOSIS

GAMETE

(egg)

FERTILIZATION

ZYGOTE

(1st diploid cell)

MITOSIS

EMBRYO

ADULT

GAMETE

(sperm)

MEIOSIS

slide29

Phenotype = Tall

Tt

tt

Genotype = _____ _____ ______

TT

1 (25%)

2 (50%)

1 (25%)

SHORT

Phenotype = _________ _________

TALL

1 (25%)

3 (75%)

1:2:1

3:1

1. Nutrition and health

2. Environment may favor tall trait = trees (food) may grow taller favoring tall organism. Tall would be able to eat, survive and reproduce. Short ones would die off.

slide30

100% PINK FLOWERS

RR’

Genotype = _____ _____ ______

RR

R’R’

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

4 (100%)

PINK

WHITE

100% RR’

Phenotype = ______ _______ _______

RED

0 (0%)

4 (100%)

0 (0%)

R

R

Phenotypes:

RED, WHITE, PINK

R’

R

R’

R

R’

Genotypes:

RR= RED

RR’= PINK

R’R’= WHITE

R’

R

R’

R

R’

Parents:

R’R’

______ x _______

RR

slide31

25% RED; 50% PINK; 25% WHITE

25% RR; 50% RR’; 25% R’R’

R’

R

Parents:

______ x _______

RR’

RR’

R

R

R

R’

R

Genotype = _____ _____ ______

RR

RR’

R’R’

R’

R’

R

R’

R’

1 (25%)

2 (50%)

1 (25%)

Phenotype = ______ _______ _______

RED

PINK

WHITE

1 (25%)

2 (50%)

1 (25%)

slide32

100% Black-and-Tan offspring

BT

Genotype = _____ _____ ______

BB

TT

100% BT

4 (100%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

Tan

Black+Tan

Phenotype = _____ _____ ______

Black

BB x TT

4 (100%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

Phenotypes:

Black

Black-and-Tan

Tan

B

B

T

B

Genotypes:

BB = Black

T

B

T

BT = Black + Tan

TT = Tan

T

B

T

Parents:

B

T

_______ x _______

BB

TT

slide33

XY

XX

Sex-linked traits travel on the X-chromosome

25% chance of child with hemophilia (1 son)

0% chance of daughter with hemophilia

25% chance of daughter being a carrier

1

0

1

Males only have 1 X – so they have it or they don’t

1

1

0

Phenotype:

Healthy, carrier, Hemophilia (sick)

XR

Xr

Xr

XR

XR

XR

XR

Genotype:

XRXR = healthy female

XRY = healthy male

XRXr = carrier female

XrY = sick male

Y

XrXr = sick female

XR

Y

Xr

Y

Parents:

XRY

______ x ______

XRXr

slide34

25% change of child with Type O

0% change of child with homozygous Type A

25% change of child with Type AB

Genotype: ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

oo

AA

Ao

BB

Bo

AB

Phenotype:

Type A, B, AB, or O

0 (0%)

1 (25%)

0 (0%)

1 (25%)

1 (25%)

1 (25%)

Type B

Phenotype: _______ _______ _______ _______

Type A

Type AB

Type O

1 (25%)

1 (25%)

1 (25%)

1 (25%)

Genotype:

A

o

Type A: AA or Ao

Type B: BB or Bo

B

A

B

B

o

Type AB: AB

Type O: oo

A

o

Bo

What we know:

Parents: _____ x _____

Ao

o

o

o

Mom: Type A (AA or Ao)

Dad: Type B (BB or Bo)

Baby: Type O (oo)

slide35

Narrowing it down:

Phenotype:

Type A, B, AB, or O

What we know:

If the child is blood Type O, then both parents have to give an ‘o’ allele.

Mom: Type A (AA or Ao)

Baby: Type O (oo)

Genotype:

Dad: 1. Type AB (AB)

2. Type A (AA or Ao)

3. Type O (oo)

Type A: AA or Ao

This leaves means Mom has to be heterozygous Type A (Ao).

Type B: BB or Bo

Dad 3 could be the father because he is Type O (oo) and can give an ‘o’ allele.

Type AB: AB

Type O: oo

Dad 2 could be the father only is he is heterozygous Type A (Ao), because he must have an ‘o’ allele to give.

Dad 1 could NOT be the father because he is blood Type AB (AB). He does not have an ‘o’ allele to give, so he cannot be the father of a child with Type O (oo) blood.

slide36

SKIN COLOR, HAIR COLOR, EYE COLOR

MULTIPLE ALLELES HAVE MORE THEN TWO ALLELES THAT CAN CODE FOR A DIFFERENT TRAITS, BUT ALL OF THE ALLELES ARE LOCATED ON THE SAME GENE. AN EXAMPLE OF MULTIPLE ALLELES ARE BLOOD TYPES (A, B, O).

POLYGENIC TRAITS HAVE MORE THEN TWO ALLELES THAT CAN CODE FOR A DIFFERENT TRAITS, BUT THE ALLELES ARE LOCATED ON THE DIFFERNT GENES. THIS CREATES A VERY WIDE RANGE OF PHENOTYPES. EXAMPLES OF POLYGENIC TRAITS ARE HAIR COLOR, EYE COLOR, AND SKIN COLOR.

slide37

AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE

Autosomal = because there are an equal number of males and females affected.

Recessive = because it is not present it every generation AND affected children do not have affected parents.

Aa

Aa

aa

A_

A_

Aa

aa

Aa

Aa

A_

aa

A_

slide38

FEMALE - XX

DOWN SYNDROME – 3 chromosomes on #21

NON-DISJUNCTION – chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis

slide39

AN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH EFFORT TO DETERMINE THE SEQUENCE OF HUMAN GENOME (all DNA) AND IDENTIFY THE GENES IT CONTAINS.

THE PRODUCTION OF MULTIPLE, IDENTICAL OFFSPRING USING BIOTECHNOLOGY.

slide40

GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

A & C – 4 out of 6 strands in common

slide41

GENETIC ENGINEERING

THE DESIRED GENE (insulin) IS CUT OUT USING RESTRICTION ENZYMES.

THE DESIRED GENE (insulin) IS THEN GLUED INTO A BACTERIAL PLASMID (circuluar DNA) USING THE ENZYME LIGASE.

THE PLASMID (now recombinant DNA with the bacterial host and desired gene) IS INSERTED BACK INTO THE BACTERIAL HOST.

What is this technology

typically used to produce?

THE BACTERIAL WILL NOW PRODUCE COPIES OF THE DESIRED GENE EVERY TIME IT DIVIDES (using binary fission). So, the insulin gene is reproduced every time the bacteria divides.

slide42

FOSSILS ARE USED TO COMPARE AGE AND FETURES TO HELP DETERMINE COMMON ANCESTRY

COMPARING DNA, AMINO ACIDS, AND PROTEIN SEQUENCES TO DETERMINE COMMON ANCESTRY. FEWER DIFFERENCE MEANS A CLOSER COMMON ANCESTOR.

VARIATION IS NECESSARY FOR EVOLUTION. THERE MUST BE DIFFERENCES AMONG ORGANISMS IN ORDER FOR THERE TO BE COMPETITION. COMPETITION CREATES NATURAL SELECTION – THOSE WITH THE MOST FAVORABLE TRAITS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE.

slide43

GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION CREATES A PHYSICAL DIVIDE BETWEEN ORGANISMS. NATURAL PHYSICAL BARRIERS INCLUDE MOUNTAINS, LAKES< RIVERS, OCEANS AND ISLANDS. THE PHYSICAL SEPARATION MEANS THE ENVIRONMENTS ARE DIFFERENT. THE DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS WILL SELECT DIFFERENT TRAITS AS BEING BETTER FIT FOR THE SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT.

SO, OVER TIME THE MOST SUCCESSFUL ORGANISMS WILL DIFFER IN APPEARANCE BASED UPON THE ENVIRONMENT THEY ARE IN. THE SPECIES ARE ALSO NO LONGER MATING, DUE TO THE PHYSICAL SEPARATION. OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME THE SPECIES ARE NO LONGER ABLE TO REPRODUCE WITH ONE ANOTHER TO PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING. THIS CREATE A NEW SPECIES – SPECIATION.

THE ENVIRONMENT PLAYS A VERY IMPORTANT ROLE IN EVOLUTION. THE ENVIRONMENT SELECTS WHICH TRAITS AND ADAPTATION ARE BENEFITIAL TO AN ORGANISM. THE ORGANISM WITH THE DESIRABLE TRAITS SURVIVE AND PASS ON THEIR GENES.

slide44

EVOLUTION OF CELLS…

No OXYGEN, which means NO PHOTOSYNTHESIS, which means organisms found food and did NOT make it

Anaerobic Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Cells

SUN, WATER & CARBON DIOXIDE available on early earth – the organisms use these to begin doing PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Photosynthetic Prokaryotic Cells

PHOTOSYNTHESIS creates OXYGEN – this allows heterotrophic organisms to make MORE ATP than with no Oxygen…

Aerobic Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Cells

Aerobic Heterotrophic Prokaryote (mitochondria) & Photosynthetic Prokaryote (chloroplast) form a partnership…

(Endosynbiotic Theory)

Eukaryotic Cells

slide45

ABIOGENESIS = LIFE COMES FROM NON-LIVING THINGS

BIOGENESIS = LIFE COMES FROM OTHER LIVING THINGS

REDI

PASTEUR

slide46

VARIATION

(Differences among members of the species)

Most with SHORTER necks

Occasionally some with LONGER necks

LONGER neck = easier time getting food

COMPETITION

(More organisms than resources. Must compete for food, shelter and mates)

Food = survival

LONG NECK = BETTER TRAIT

NATURAL SELECTION

(Those with the best traits and adaptations for the environment are able to survive and reproduce.)

LONG Neck giraffes more successful in obtaining food and mates

LONG neck gene is passed on because it is the more successful trait

Future generations look more and more like the successful traits – LONG NECK giraffes

slide47

KING

KINGDOM

PHILIP

PHYLUM

CAME

CLASS

OVER

ORDER

FOR

FAMILY

GOOD

GENUS

USED FOR SCIENTIFIC NAMING:

Genus species

SOUP

SPECIES

slide48

SCIENTIFIC NAMING USED UNDERSTOOD BY ALL SCIENTIST ACROSS THE WORLD.

TO NAME:

GENUS = FIRST NAME (capitalize first letter)

SPECIES = LAST NAME (all lowercase)

EXAMPLE:

Homo sapien

GENUS

SPECIES

COMMON NAME =

HUMAN

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