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Comprehending Architecture. Dennis Raymond P. Maturan CHSM 2010. Etymology of Architecture. Architecture (Latin architectura , from the Greek– arkhitekton, from "chief" and "builder, carpenter") can mean: The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures.

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Dennis raymond p maturan chsm 2010

Comprehending Architecture

Dennis Raymond P. Maturan

CHSM 2010


Etymology of architecture
Etymology of Architecture

  • Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek– arkhitekton, from "chief" and "builder, carpenter") can mean:

  • The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures.

  • A general term to describe buildings and other structures.


Architecture
ARCHITECTURE

  • Is usually referred as the “Mother of the Arts” because it houses, serves as a background for, or occurs in relation to other fields of art such as painting, sculpture, interior design, landscape architecture and city planning.


Architecture

  • A style and method of design and construction of buildings and other physical structures.

  • The art of designing and constructing buildings and other types of structures.


Architecture

  • Uses durable materials and follows certain building standards.


Architecture1
ARCHITECTURE

  • Materials used in Architecture are stone, concrete, brick, wood, steel, glass and plaster


Architecture

  • Produces structures suited for their purpose or function.


Three kinds of architecture according to functions
Three Kinds of Architecture According to Functions

1. Interior Design – creation or design of the interior of a house to suit the personality, needs and lifestyle of the people living in it.


Three kinds of architecture according to functions1
Three Kinds of Architecture According to Functions

2. Landscape Architecture – design and development of landscape and garden to capture the needs of the environment


Landscape architecture
Landscape Architecture

  • This is the planning of outdoor areas for human use and enjoyment, especially gardens, parks, playgrounds, golf courses, etc.

  • Materials are plants, trees, shrubs, flowers, vines and ground cover.


Three kinds of architecture according to functions2
Three Kinds of Architecture According to Functions

3. Urban/City Planning – bridge between the profession of urban planning and architecture and its primary concern which is the physical form of the city and may manifest itself in the cultural context of urban design.


Urban city planning
Urban/City Planning

  • This is the planning and arranging the physical aspects of a large or small community.

  • Structures and areas are concerned with all phases of living and working, which are attractively and efficiently organized and related,


Functional classifications
Functional Classifications

  • Religious

  • Commercial

  • Residential

  • Recreational

  • Government

  • Industrial

  • Cultural/ Art Exhibitions

  • Rehabilitation Centers

  • Airports

  • Seaports

  • Malls

  • Communication Centers

  • Research Centers

  • Observatories

  • Institutional/Service


Origins of architectural elements
Origins of Architectural Elements

  • Hearth – fire, ceramics

  • Roof – carpentry

  • Enclosure – weaving

  • Mound – stone masonry


Elements of architecture
Elements of Architecture

  • Lines

  • Colors

  • Light and Shadow

  • Value

  • Volume

  • Space

  • Form


Principles in architectural planning
Principles in Architectural Planning

  • Orientation – the control of the effects of sun, wind and rainfall.

  • Design – the modification of the effects of the natural forces such as porches, eaves, roofs, etc.

  • Fenestration – control and distribution of windows for light, ventilation and heating.


Principles in architectural planning1
Principles in Architectural Planning

4. Walls – Insulation and heating control

5. Color – practical and expressive qualities for reflection and absorption of light

6. Materials and Techniques – materials used and intended use for them


Architect and Architecture

Architects: specialists in designing structures


Architect and architecture
Architect and Architecture

  • The practice of an architect, where architecture means to offer or render professional services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use.


Principles of Architectural Construction

1. Post-and –Lintel – makes use of posts or two vertical supports spanned by a lintel or horizontal beam.

A beam is placed horizontally across upright posts and considered the oldest of the construction system.


Principles of Architectural Construction

2. Ancient Greek “Orders” (styles): composed of a shaft, capital, and base.

http://www.bozzle.com/perClassicOrders.html


Principles of Architectural Construction

3. Entablature: the top of an order; includes the architrave, frieze, and cornice.

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/architecture/entablature.html


Principles of Architectural Construction

4. The Arch –consists of separate pieces of wedges or shaped blocks arranged in semi-circles. The keystone is the last set stone at top center which locks the pieces together.


Principles of Architectural Construction

  • The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is often made up of small stones called voussoir and a large central stone called a keystone.


Principles of Architectural Construction

5. The Vault - is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.


Principles of Architectural Construction

6. The Dome – a roof that is hemispherical in form and resembles a half ping pong ball and built in a framework formed by a series of arches rising from consecutive points in the base.


Principles of Architectural Construction

  • The arch, vault, and dome are variations of the same concept that allowed for greater height and more space inside a building.


Principles of Architectural Construction

A series of columns is called a colonnade.

A series of arches is called an arcade.


Principles of Architectural Construction

7. Flying Buttress: external arch that counter-balanced the outward thrust of the high, vaulted ceilings.

http://www.m-w.com/mw/art/flyingbu.htm


Principles of Architectural Construction

8. Truss system - was used during the Industrial Revolution, many new materials were developed: glass-- Crystal Palace (1851)

http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1158.htm


Principles of Architectural Construction

  • and wrought iron: The Eiffel Tower

  • This system applies to most of the bridges, assembly plants, theaters, shopping malls, gymnasium that necessitates wide spaces but with very few interior supports.



Principles of architectural construction1
Principles of Architectural Construction

9. Cantilever –used to support walls and floors that are ideally made of steel and Ferro-concrete; a beam or slab extended horizontally beyond its supporting part from strong support.


Principles of architectural construction2
Principles of Architectural Construction

10. Skeleton Construction – requires the use of a strong foundation which will fit to the great height of the floor, roof and partitions which are usually made of concrete and steel


Architecture

The Romans were great engineers. They developed concrete as a building material, which was used in building aqueducts, baths, and other public works projects.


Modern Architecture

Antonio Gaudi: Spanish architect– no flat surface or straight lines (organic)

http://www.lexised.com/architecture/gaudi/casam.html


Modern Architecture

Antonio Gaudi’s most famous building: “La Sagrada Familia”


Modern Architecture

The 1st skyscraper was made in St. Louis, MO by Louis Sullivan who coined the expression “form follows function”.


Modern Architecture

Frank Lloyd Wright: American architect; carefully considered the environment where the building was to be constructed.

“Falling Water”

More Wright


Modern Architecture

Steel and concrete are the favored materials for commercial type construction.

Wood and brick are the favored materials for residential construction.


Philippine architecture
PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE

  • Nipa Hut “Bahay Kubo” – pre-colonial period (nipa, bamboo and cogon)

  • Bahay na Bato -during the Spanish period (bricks. Stone and tiles)

  • Neo-Classical – during the American period (introduces G.I. sheets)

  • Modern-Contemporary


Noted filipino architects
Noted Filipino Architects

  • Felix Roxas Sr. – 1st Filipino Architect

  • Juan Hervas – 1887 Manila Architect

  • Tomas Arguelles – Public Works, Rails

  • Arcadio Arellano – Hidalgo House

  • Tomas Mapua - PGH

  • Juan Nakpil – Art deco

  • Luna de San Pedro – Legarda Elementary School

  • Fr. Roque Ruaño O.P. – UST Building

  • Juan Arellano – Romantic Architect

  • Leandro V. Locsin – National Artist


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