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Theory Summary H. Stöcker, FIAS. Astrophysics Lattice Colored Glass Fluctuations & DCCs J/Psi & EM Probes Strangeness Transport Theory Hydro & Jets Apologies. Astrophysics. Ellis Antimatter- Matter asymmetry: BB Bombaci Strange Quarkstars & GRB

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Theory Summary H. Stöcker, FIAS

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Theory Summary H. Stöcker, FIAS

  • Astrophysics

  • Lattice

  • Colored Glass

  • Fluctuations & DCCs

  • J/Psi & EM Probes

  • Strangeness

  • Transport Theory

  • Hydro & Jets

  • Apologies


  • Ellis Antimatter- Matter asymmetry: BB

  • Bombaci Strange Quarkstars & GRB

  • Banyopadhyay Massive SQS possible

  • Bhattacharyya Transition NS- SQS

  • Mishra CSC-> SQS-Cooling curves!


Hot and Dense Hadronic Matter in Big Bang J.Ellis

Recreate the first 10-6 seconds …

… and probe the quark-hadron

phase transition




“Neutron Stars”


“traditional” Neutron Stars

Hadronic Stars

Hyperon Stars

Hybrid Stars

Quark Stars

Strange Stars

Supernova-GRB connection: the Quark-Deconfinement Nova model

Progenitor star

Supernova explosion

Quark Star

Mass accretion on metastable NS

Gamma Ray Burst


Double Delight in PSR J0737-3039

  • First ever observed Double Pulsar System, Burgay et al., Nature 426 (2003) 531

  • Keplerian parameters Porb=2.45 h, ap , e = 0.088,and To measured from the pulsar timing data.

  • Pulsar A has a spin period 22.7 ms and M=1.337 M; those of Pulsar B are 2.8 s and M= 1.25 M ,

  • Accurate measurements of relativistic corrections to the Keplerian description,

  • Enormous bursts of gravitational waves.

Bandyopadhyay: will allow to pin down R: spin-orbit cp


Best EXO- fit values: R =11.5 km, but M=1.8M = SQS!?

  • Allowed EOS : M max theo> M highest obs

    Hulse-Taylor pulsar , Mobs= 1.44 M

    Radio Binary pulsar systems , M obs= 1.56 M

  • Softer EOS ruled out by EXO 0748-676!

Lattice QCD

  • Gavai

  • Laermann

  • Order of Phasetransition?

  • Speed of sound?

QCD phase diagram

Taylor series: order 8

Large lattices required:

L > 6/m_pi, to avoid large finite size effects

Small quark masses:


Critical endpoint!

Gavai, Gupta hep-lat/0412035

Cv and Cs^2


Continuum limit taken

New method for E, P, S

Use anomaly measure for Cv and Cs

Gavai, Gupta, Mukherjee, hep-lat/0412036 and in preparation

Laermann‘s Talk

Colored Glass

  • Venugopalan

  • Kovchegov

  • McLerran

The demise of the Structure function: R. Venugopalan

  • Dipoles (and multipole) operators may be more

    relevant observables at high energies

  • Are universal-process independent.

  • RG running of these operators - detailed tests of

    high energy QCD.

Jalilian-Marian, Gelis;

Kovner, Wiedemann

Blaizot, Gelis, Venugopalan

Our Model





from D. Kharzeev, Yu. Kovchegov., K. Tuchin, hep-ph/0405045, where we construct a

model based on above physics + add valence quark contribution

Peeking through the Colored Looking Glass

A perspective on Future Directions?

Color Glass Condensate as Medium:

Pomerons, Odderons, Reggeons as Quasiparticle excitations of the CGC

-> ODD Couplerons develop: Larry, marrying with Klaus Werner??

Ploops: (Pomeron loops) How a little fluctuation becomes a big problem

The CGC and the QGP: Is the sQGP really the CGC? Is rapid “thermalization” due to the CGC? Does flow arise largely from the CGC?

Comments about the LHC: The CGC Machine


Fluctuations and DCCs

  • Koch

  • Csörgö

  • Chandrasekar

  • Randrup

Fluctuation studies


  • K/p fluctuations increase towards lower beam energy

    • Significant enhancement over hadronic cascade model

  • p/p fluctuations are negative

    • indicates a strong contribution from resonance decays

Taken from Christoph Roland

NA49 Preliminary

NA49 Preliminary

Koch‘s DCC predict. seen in CERES data?

Dileptons, J/Psi, Photons

  • Lee

  • Mustafa

  • Koch

Summary of Lee’s Talk

  • Reported on the QCD NLO Quarkonium- Gluon/hadron dissociation cross section.

     Large correction even for upsilon system, especially near threshold

2. The corrections becomes smaller with thermal quark and gluon mass of larger than 200 MeV

 Thermal width of J/y : 1 GeV at T=600 MeV@ 1mb

3. The dissociation cross section due to quarks are less than 10 % of that due to the gluons.

 The quenched lattice calculation of the mass and width of J/y at finite temperature should be reliable.

Corrected NA50 data 2002

UrQMD 1999




  • Rafelski

  • Cleymans

  • Braun Munzinger

  • Bleicher

Where do we expect interesting effects?

  • 1st Order phase transition at high mueB

  • No P.T. at low mueB: Xing

  • Search for irregularities around E beam = 10-40 GeV:

  • Flow, strangeness, E-by-E

Plot from L. Bravina and E. Bratkovskaya shown in Bleicher’s talk

Cleyman‘s & PBM‘s Talk





Transport theory: AA Strangeness Excitation functions Bleicher’s & Rafelski’s talk

  • 4 pi and mid-y abundancies: OK

    But not K+/pi!

  • Energy dependence: OK

  • Hadron-string models work well


    Alt: Four parameter T, Mue, Gamma-mue, Gamma-s model ok? Rafelski

3-4 GeV heavy resonances ??vs. Colored Cluster BS-Plasma???->Talks by Shuryak & W. Greiner

Deeply bound P-bar and K- states : Gateway to cold and dense matter: W. Greiner

  • Bound P and K - nuclear systems: strong interaction pbars suppress vector fields

  • Discrete bound states with binding energies ~ 100th MeV and 20 fm/c widths,

    Y. Akaishi and T. Yamazaki , Phys. Rev. C65 (2002) 044005

    I. Mishustin et al

  • Formation of cold and highly dense nuclear system ~ 3-5 n0,

  • ‘Study of dense p - nuclear systems’ at FAIR and K-Nucleus at J-PARC.


  • Shuryak

  • Heinz

  • Chauduri



hydro describes both radial and elliptic flows(from Jacak’s talk)


Hydro models:




(w/ & w/o




(w/& w/o


EOS of QCD is such that cs^2 is not constant Shuryak-talkp/e (e) = EoS along fixed nB/s lines (Hung,ES,hep-ph/9709264).:

A gas of


pions =>

Relativisitc QGP


The softest point


QGP pressure is nearly balanced by the vacuum

pressure: p=p(QGP)-B

Viscosity: Aswindini, Chaudhuri

NA49: Collapse of V2(protons) at 40 AGeV: 1.Order PT?



Hydro-Heinz: v2 vs. Eta- corrected

P.K. Sahu et al, arXiv:nucl-th/0206010


V2 from UrQMD

Brahms vs. Bleicher‘s talk

<v2> of high pt particles:Factors 3-5 from plasma pressure!

Huge Plasma pressure!

HSD: pt>2 GeV/c

Cassing, Gallmeister, Carsten Greiner, HSD




Tomographic Approach

  • Consistent estimate with

  • hydrodynamic analysis

  • But:

  • assumes to much action in QGP

F.Karsch, Nucl.Phys.A698 (2002)

Ivan Vitev,LANL

S.A. Voloshin, Nucl. Phys. A715, 379 (2003).

Z. Lin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 202302 (2002).

R. Fries et al., nucl-th/0306027.

D. Molnar and S.A. Voloshin, PRL 91, 092301(2003).

*LEPS: Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 012002-1 (2003).

Quark Coalescence =Recombination -> BASS Charmonium follows flow!

STAR Preliminary

  • v2 of f and r0

J. Castillo, S. Salur , P. Sorensen

UrQMD also shows „Recombination“- no Const.Qs?

Xianglei Zhu FIAS/STAR from Bleicher‘s talk-spares

Flow (v1,v2) of D+Dbar & J/Y vs. pT , y

  • Flow of D+Dbar & J/Y followslight hadrons but v2 < 3%

Antiflow of pions & Kaons

Xianglei Zhu, M.Bleicher

Jetquenching in medium discovered@ RHIC but: Open Questions..

  • How much of jet quenching due to JET->Hadron coll?

  • Measure leading particle kind & p-tot -

  • Different X-sections – different quenching...

  • Jets thru equilibrized plasma-> Machshock in Plasma!

  • What is the sound velocity of the medium ?

  • Use jet-induced Mach-cones -> c_s of plasma !

expansion of smallcolor transparency configuration- 50% hadronic quenching !- 50% QGP needed Cassing,Gallmester Carsten Greiner

Rho + Proton suppression

50% of p_T - Suppression

due to hadron

Rescattering !

Plasma suppression

Correlated Jets: Transport model predictionHow much of Jet quenching is due to (pre-) hadronic FSI ?

  • p-p jet angular correlations o.k.

  • near-side jet angular correlation o.k. for central Au+Au

  • 50% too little suppression of away-side jet by hadrons !

  • 50% QGP needed !


(pre-)hadronic FSI

Plasma suppression


  • W. Cassing, K. Gallmeister,

  • Carsten Greiner,

  • hep-ph/0403208, QM’04 Proceedings

New hydro phenomenon:“conical” Mach Shock flow

H.Stöcker, W. Greiner Schopper 1975

Machshocks in Nuclei

H.Stöcker, nucl-th/04:

Jet in QG-Plasma=Machshock, Wakes


-> Cs -> Vflow compression of dense plasma

Phase transition

Casalderey-SolanaShuryak Teaney, hep-ph/04…..

Jets interact in the plasma, causing wakesand shock waves relativ to jet-axis

Hadronic rescattering responsible for energyloss?

Emission angle alpha relativ to jet axis:

Cos (alpha)

= Cs / V (jet)

Cs~ 0.3 in hadron matter

Cs = 0.57 for

m = 0

Thermalized QG plasma

Collapse of Baryon Flow= 1.Order Phase Trans. H.Stöcker, Hofmann, Scheid, W.Greiner 1974/76

Bear Mountain 1974

2-4 AGeV/c Carbon on Silver

Nuclear EoS Lee-Wick (m=0) state

Distribution of radial velocity v_r (left) and modulus v (right).(note tsunami-like features, a positive and negative parts of the wave shuryak teany)

PHENIX jet pair distribution (from B.Jacak)

Away-side jet ~2sdip at p – 1.1:

60° Mach peak around Jetaxis, all bins

wrong projection, should be clear in principle axis system of the jet

Is such a sonic boom already observed?


flow of matter normal to the Mach cone seems to be observed! See data from STAR, Fuqiang Wang, JPhysG, QM04 nucl-ex/0404010, but stable?? J. Adams… 0501016

Careful, if you wanna „go with the flow“


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