Evolution of warfare
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Evolution of Warfare. Limited Warfare in the Age of Monarchs. Major Carlos Rascon. Learning Objectives. Comprehend and explain the resurrection of mobility and offensive by Marlborough Know and trace the emergence of limited war, international law, and tight professional armies of Kings.

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Evolution of Warfare

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Evolution of warfare

Evolution of Warfare

Limited Warfare in the Age of Monarchs

Major Carlos Rascon


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Comprehend and explain the resurrection of mobility and offensive by Marlborough

  • Know and trace the emergence of limited war, international law, and tight professional armies of Kings


Learning objectives cont

Learning Objectives (cont)

  • Know and describe the strategy, tactics, and means of limited warfare

  • Comprehend and explain the emergence of Great Britain as the dominant maritime and colonial power by the end of the 18th century


Introduction

Introduction

  • Reaction to 30 Years War

  • Mobility and Offense

  • International Law


Introduction cont

Introduction (cont)

  • Limited War

    • Nature of armies

    • Discipline

    • Objectives of Limited War


Introduction cont1

Introduction (cont)

  • Conduct of Limited War

    • Strategy

    • Tactics

    • Means


Frederick

Frederick

  • 1740-48 War of Austrian Succession

    • Frederick II of Prussia Made demands on Austrian throne (Maria Theresa) that were refused

    • France, Prussia & Spain vs. Austria & England

    • England Provided Money only, & took advantage of French Preoccupation to seize territory in New World & India


Frederick cont

Frederick (cont)

  • Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)

    • To counter Prussia’s growing power, Austria, France, Russia and Sweden join forces

    • England (already in colonial & maritime war w/ France) aided by Prussia with money


Seven years war

Seven Years’ War


Seven years war cont

Seven Years’ War (cont)

  • Frederick’s position, attitude & strategy:

    • Too many enemies to wait for coordinated attack

    • Advantage of interior lines, move fast and strike hard at one enemy at a time

    • Relied on discipline and training to defeat more numerous enemies


Seven years war cont1

Seven Years’ War (cont)

  • Objective: destruction of forces of enemy, not just occupation or defense of territory

  • Military power out of proportion to size/wealth

  • Officer Corps: Junkers/poor nobility, professional, dedicated (Compared to French Nobility)


Battle of leuthen dec 1757

Battle of Leuthen (Dec 1757)

  • Austrian Army (80,000) in 5-mile long line

    • Hilly country

    • Right flank on marsh

    • Reserves behind partially entrenched left wing

    • Anticipating Frederick would envelop on left


Battle of leuthen cont

Battle of Leuthen (cont)

  • Frederick moved forward with 36,000 troops

    • Hidden by hills

    • Changed direction obliquely to right

    • Left small force for demonstration on Austrian right


Battle of leuthen cont1

Battle of Leuthen (cont)

  • Austrian reserves move to support the apparently threatened right flank

  • Frederick attacked Austrian left in two lanes echeloned from right

  • Local superiority (4 to 1) + each battalion added firepower of 7-pound guns


Battle of leuthen cont2

Battle of Leuthen (cont)

  • Frederick captured 20,000 prisoners, 115 guns, and killed or wounded 6,800

  • Frederick lost 6,200


Battle of leuthen cont3

Battle of Leuthen (cont)


Frederick1

Frederick

  • “Oblique Order”

    • From of “Manoevre”

    • Parade ground formula for victory

      • Drill was a means to an end, not just tradition


Prague 1757

Prague (1757)


Results

Results

  • Politically

  • Militarily

  • Laid foundation for a united Germany

  • Royal Navy


Use of artillery

Use of Artillery

  • Pioneered indirect fire with high trajectory of howitzer

  • Cavalry artillery vice horsedrawn artillery

    • Everyone on horse back to keep up with fast moving cavalry

    • Canister, Shell, Grapeshot


Emergence of great britain

Emergence of Great Britain

  • Spanish Armada

  • Cardinal Richelieu’s fleet

  • Anglo-Dutch Wars

    • 1647 Britain Victorious

    • “Line ahead”

  • Video 8min Galleons


Emergence of great britain cont

Emergence of Great Britain (cont)

  • France defeated at sea

    • War of Spanish Succession

    • Mahan “She was the sea power”

  • Solidification

    • Colonial Empire

    • Seven Years’ War


Mas reveries

Mas Reveries

  • Mas Reveries (French development in military thought)

    • Marshall Maurice de Saxe

    • Mas Reveries

    • Ideas


Summary

Summary


Questions

Questions


Next session learning objectives

Next session Learning Objectives

  • Comprehend and contrast/compare the expressions “strategy of attrition” and “partisan warfare,” and apply them to the American Revolution

  • Know and discuss British and American strategy and objectives, and note how they changed during the course of the American Revolution


Learning objectives cont1

Learning Objectives (cont)

  • Comprehend and contrast the Continental Army with the professional armies of the 18th century and show how this difference dictated Washington’s strategy

  • Comprehend and explain how French intervention tipped the balance in favor of America in the War of Independence


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