Modern Genetics. Human inheritance. Some traits are formed from single genes (2 alleles) Some are formed from multiple genes (multiple alleles) Example: blood type. Blood types. Types: A, B, AB, O 3 alleles control the blood type A & B are co dominant O is recessive. SexChromosomes.
Selective Breeding: is the process of selecting and breeding parent organisms to pass on particular traits to the offspring.
Horses, pigs, corn, dogs
What do you thing the animal to the left is? It has been selectively bred.
Cross Breeding: A cross between two pure breed parents creating a hybrid.
Killer Bees: a cross between Brazilian bees with African bees to create a bee that would produce more honey.
Genetic Engineering: is the process in which a sequence of DNA from an organism is first isolated, then inserted into the DNA of another organism, changing that organism’s DNA.
Taking genes from microorganism and inserting them into plants to produce a natural insect killing chemical.
Inserting a bioluminescent gene into bacteria to make it glow.
Genetic Engineering vs. Organic
Most of you have eaten genetic engineered/ modified foods. Many plants have bacterial genes that make them more resistant to insects.
How many of you have eaten fruits without seeds?
Here is a tobacco plant that glows.
Cloning: is a technique that uses technology to make copies. It can be applied to a segment of DNA or the whole organism.
Bacteria: create human insulin which is used to help people with diabetes.
A sheep named Dolly. (Nucleus Transfer)
Cloning a Gene
Genome: is all the genetic material in an organism.
So why clone?
DNA Identification: The use of DNA to identify a person.
DNA Fingerprinting: Chart representing repeating base pairs
Used in crime solving
A fun case at NOVA.
DNA Evidence Video
What are Some Issues to Cloning?
The Good vs. Bad
What are the ethical issues?
There are genetically engineered salmon that grow faster. They are breed in captivity, near rivers and stream. What might happen if they escape?
Should we label genetically modified foods?
Many companies already label food and products that have been genetically altered.