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Economics 172 Issues in African Economic Development. Lecture 14 March 2, 2006. Outline: The Girls Scholarship Program (GSP) in Kenya: Project design Theoretical perspectives Project results and implications. The Girls Scholarship Program (GSP).

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Economics 172 issues in african economic development

Economics 172Issues in African Economic Development

Lecture 14

March 2, 2006


Outline:

  • The Girls Scholarship Program (GSP) in Kenya: Project design

  • Theoretical perspectives

  • Project results and implications

Economics 172


The girls scholarship program gsp
The Girls Scholarship Program (GSP)

  • GSP is a randomized evaluation of a merit award for Grade 6 girls in Busia and Teso districts, Kenya

Economics 172


The girls scholarship program gsp1
The Girls Scholarship Program (GSP)

  • GSP is a randomized evaluation of a merit award for Grade 6 girls in Busia and Teso districts, Kenya

  • 64 Treatment schools, 63 comparison schools

  • The top 15% of girls in program schools (by district) received a $38 prize, and a public awards ceremony

Economics 172


The girls scholarship program gsp2
The Girls Scholarship Program (GSP)

  • GSP is a randomized evaluation of a merit award for Grade 6 girls in Busia and Teso districts, Kenya

  • 64 Treatment schools, 63 comparison schools

  • The top 15% of girls in program schools (by district) received a $38 prize, and a public awards ceremony

  • What impact do these incentives have on test scores and other measures of school performance?

Economics 172


The girls scholarship program gsp3
The Girls Scholarship Program (GSP)

  • Treatment and comparison group schools are similar (Table 3, Figure 5)

Economics 172





Why might incentives have an impact theoretical perspectives
Why might incentives have an impact?Theoretical perspectives

  • Extrinsic motivation (exploiting immediate gratification)

Economics 172


Why might incentives have an impact theoretical perspectives1
Why might incentives have an impact?Theoretical perspectives

  • Extrinsic motivation (exploiting immediate gratification)

  • vs. Intrinsic motivation (“love of learning”)

Economics 172


Why might incentives have an impact theoretical perspectives2
Why might incentives have an impact?Theoretical perspectives

  • Extrinsic motivation (exploiting immediate gratification)

  • vs. Intrinsic motivation (“love of learning”)

  • Parent encouragement / pressure on the girls

Economics 172


Why might incentives have an impact theoretical perspectives3
Why might incentives have an impact?Theoretical perspectives

  • Extrinsic motivation (exploiting immediate gratification)

  • vs. Intrinsic motivation (“love of learning”)

  • Parent encouragement / pressure on the girls

  • Great teacher effort (altruism, recognition)

Economics 172


Why might incentives have an impact theoretical perspectives4
Why might incentives have an impact?Theoretical perspectives

  • Extrinsic motivation (exploiting immediate gratification)

  • vs. Intrinsic motivation (“love of learning”)

  • Parent encouragement / pressure on the girls

  • Great teacher effort (altruism, recognition)

  • Community mobilization to support the program

Economics 172


Gsp empirical impacts
GSP empirical impacts

  • Impacts are positive and quite large for cohort 1:

    0.12-0.13 standard deviations on average (Table 4)

Economics 172


Gsp empirical impacts1
GSP empirical impacts

  • Impacts are positive and quite large for cohort 1:

    0.12-0.13 standard deviations on average (Table 4)

  • There are similar effects for girls and boys

  • Positive effects are concentrated in Busia district (gains of 0.2 s.d.), but are zero in Teso district

Economics 172




Difficulties in teso district
Difficulties in Teso district

  • This NGO, and other NGOs, have long had trouble introducing new projects into Teso district

  • The dominant ethnic groups are different in Busia district and Teso district

Economics 172


Difficulties in teso district1
Difficulties in Teso district

  • This NGO, and other NGOs, have long had trouble introducing new projects into Teso district

  • The dominant ethnic groups are different in Busia district and Teso district

  • There was a tragic lightning strike incident in a Teso district primary school in April 2001 – seven students died (27 injured), and NGO project work became even more difficult afterwards. Five Teso district schools pulled out of the program

Economics 172






Summarizing gsp empirical findings
Summarizing GSP empirical findings

  • Focusing on Busia district schools:

    Gains for girls are 0.21-0.28 s.d., even the year after the scholarship competition

Economics 172


Summarizing gsp empirical findings1
Summarizing GSP empirical findings

  • Focusing on Busia district schools:

    Gains for girls are 0.21-0.28 s.d., even the year after the scholarship competition

    Gains for boys are 0.07-0.18 s.d., evidence of a substantial classroom externality effect

Economics 172


Summarizing gsp empirical findings2
Summarizing GSP empirical findings

  • Focusing on Busia district schools:

    Gains for girls are 0.21-0.28 s.d., even the year after the scholarship competition

    Gains for boys are 0.07-0.18 s.d., evidence of a substantial classroom externality effect

  • There are no gains in Teso district

Economics 172


Why are there program effects in busia
Why are there program effects in Busia?

  • Student school participation increased by 5 percentage points in program schools (Table 7), for girls and boys

  • Teacher attendance increased 6 percentage points

  • There are no significant changes in students’ study habits, work at home, or attitudes toward education, but suggestive evidence of more school supplies purchased for girls (Table 8)

Economics 172



What are the policy implications
What are the policy implications?

  • Positive impacts:

    Test scores improved more than any other project we have studied in Kenya, and for relatively low cost

Economics 172


What are the policy implications1
What are the policy implications?

  • Positive impacts:

    Test scores improved more than any other project we have studied in Kenya, and for relatively low cost

    GSP could promote empowerment of women and changes in social norms about girls’ education

Economics 172


What are the policy implications2
What are the policy implications?

  • Positive impacts:

    Test scores improved more than any other project we have studied in Kenya, and for relatively low cost

    GSP could promote empowerment of women and changes in social norms about girls’ education

  • Possible concerns / limitations:

    In the long-run, will GSP destroy the love of learning?

Economics 172


What are the policy implications3
What are the policy implications?

  • Positive impacts:

    Test scores improved more than any other project we have studied in Kenya, and for relatively low cost

    GSP could promote empowerment of women and changes in social norms about girls’ education

  • Possible concerns / limitations:

    In the long-run, will GSP destroy the love of learning?

    Are the findings general? (Recall Teso district result)

    What if girls and boys competed against each other?

Economics 172


Whiteboard 1
Whiteboard #1

Economics 172


Whiteboard 2
Whiteboard #2

Economics 172


Whiteboard 3
Whiteboard #3

Economics 172


Whiteboard 4
Whiteboard #4

Economics 172


Whiteboard 5
Whiteboard #5

Economics 172


Map of africa
Map of Africa

Economics 172


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