Chapter 1 ten themes in the study of life
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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life. Hierarchy of Organization. Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism. Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere Ecosphere. Emergent Properties. Order – tendency to self organize Reproduction – biogenesis

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Chapter 1 ten themes in the study of life l.jpg

Chapter 1Ten Themes In The Study Of Life


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Hierarchy of Organization

  • Atoms

  • Molecules

  • Organelles

  • Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs

  • Systems

  • Organism

  • Population

  • Community

  • Ecosystem

  • Biome

  • Biosphere

  • Ecosphere


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Emergent Properties

  • Order – tendency to self organize

  • Reproduction – biogenesis

  • Growth and development

  • Energy utilization

  • Response to the environment

  • Homeostasis – self regulation

  • Evolutionary adaptation


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With each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order, novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.

“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”


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How do we seek understanding? novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.

  • Reductionism – reducing complex systems to simpler components

  • Holism – Study the entire system to truly understand it


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The Cell Theory novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.

  • 1. All living things are composed of cells

  • 2. All cells come from other cells

  • 3. Cells are the units of structure and function


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Two Major Kinds of Cells novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.

  • Prokaryotic – first cell

  • Eukaryotic – true cell


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E.M. of Prokaryotic Cells novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.


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DNA Basics novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.

  • DNA is the substance of genes

  • Double helix

  • 4 Bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine

  • Self-replicating molecule

  • Changes over time

  • All forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code


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Organisms Are Open Systems That Interact Continuously With Their Environments.

  • Living things both alter and are changed by their environment

  • Materials are recycled

  • Energy is lost as heat and not recycled


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Energy Flow In The Ecosystem Their Environments.


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Living Systems Are Regulated Their Environments.

Many Biological Processes Are Self -Regulating Through “Feedback” Mechanisms


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Negative Feedback Their Environments.

Positive Feedback


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Evolution, Unity, And Diversity Their Environments.

The Evolutionary Connections Among All Organisms Explain the Unity and Diversity of Life.


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The Three Domains of Life Their Environments.


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“Descent With Modification” Their Environments.


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Connections Their Environments.

  • Observation #1– Individual variation

  • Observation #2 – Struggle for existence

  • Inference – Differential reproductive success or “Natural Selection”

Natural Selection Is An Editing Process


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The Process Of Science Their Environments.

“Science Is A Way Of Knowing”


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Idealized Scientific Method Their Environments.

Inductive Reasoning


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Hypothetico- Their Environments.deductive Reasoning

“If…then” Logic


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“Fishing” Their Environments. For Answers


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Theories Have Broad Explanatory Power Their Environments.

Theories Are Comprehensive


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