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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life. Hierarchy of Organization. Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism. Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere Ecosphere. Emergent Properties. Order – tendency to self organize Reproduction – biogenesis

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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

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Chapter 1Ten Themes In The Study Of Life


Hierarchy of Organization

  • Atoms

  • Molecules

  • Organelles

  • Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs

  • Systems

  • Organism

  • Population

  • Community

  • Ecosystem

  • Biome

  • Biosphere

  • Ecosphere


Emergent Properties

  • Order – tendency to self organize

  • Reproduction – biogenesis

  • Growth and development

  • Energy utilization

  • Response to the environment

  • Homeostasis – self regulation

  • Evolutionary adaptation


With each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order, novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.

“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”


How do we seek understanding?

  • Reductionism – reducing complex systems to simpler components

  • Holism – Study the entire system to truly understand it


The Cell Theory

  • 1. All living things are composed of cells

  • 2. All cells come from other cells

  • 3. Cells are the units of structure and function


Two Major Kinds of Cells

  • Prokaryotic – first cell

  • Eukaryotic – true cell


E.M. of Prokaryotic Cells


DNA Basics

  • DNA is the substance of genes

  • Double helix

  • 4 Bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine

  • Self-replicating molecule

  • Changes over time

  • All forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code


Organisms Are Open Systems That Interact Continuously With Their Environments.

  • Living things both alter and are changed by their environment

  • Materials are recycled

  • Energy is lost as heat and not recycled


Energy Flow In The Ecosystem


Living Systems Are Regulated

Many Biological Processes Are Self -Regulating Through “Feedback” Mechanisms


Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback


Evolution, Unity, And Diversity

The Evolutionary Connections Among All Organisms Explain the Unity and Diversity of Life.


The Three Domains of Life


“Descent With Modification”


Connections

  • Observation #1– Individual variation

  • Observation #2 – Struggle for existence

  • Inference – Differential reproductive success or “Natural Selection”

Natural Selection Is An Editing Process


The Process Of Science

“Science Is A Way Of Knowing”


Idealized Scientific Method

Inductive Reasoning


Hypothetico-deductive Reasoning

“If…then” Logic


“Fishing” For Answers


Theories Have Broad Explanatory Power

Theories Are Comprehensive


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