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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life. Hierarchy of Organization. Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organism. Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere Ecosphere. Emergent Properties. Order – tendency to self organize Reproduction – biogenesis

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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

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Chapter 1 ten themes in the study of life l.jpg

Chapter 1Ten Themes In The Study Of Life


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Hierarchy of Organization

  • Atoms

  • Molecules

  • Organelles

  • Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs

  • Systems

  • Organism

  • Population

  • Community

  • Ecosystem

  • Biome

  • Biosphere

  • Ecosphere


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Emergent Properties

  • Order – tendency to self organize

  • Reproduction – biogenesis

  • Growth and development

  • Energy utilization

  • Response to the environment

  • Homeostasis – self regulation

  • Evolutionary adaptation


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With each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order, novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization.

“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”


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How do we seek understanding?

  • Reductionism – reducing complex systems to simpler components

  • Holism – Study the entire system to truly understand it


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The Cell Theory

  • 1. All living things are composed of cells

  • 2. All cells come from other cells

  • 3. Cells are the units of structure and function


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Two Major Kinds of Cells

  • Prokaryotic – first cell

  • Eukaryotic – true cell


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E.M. of Prokaryotic Cells


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DNA Basics

  • DNA is the substance of genes

  • Double helix

  • 4 Bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine

  • Self-replicating molecule

  • Changes over time

  • All forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code


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Organisms Are Open Systems That Interact Continuously With Their Environments.

  • Living things both alter and are changed by their environment

  • Materials are recycled

  • Energy is lost as heat and not recycled


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Energy Flow In The Ecosystem


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Living Systems Are Regulated

Many Biological Processes Are Self -Regulating Through “Feedback” Mechanisms


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Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback


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Evolution, Unity, And Diversity

The Evolutionary Connections Among All Organisms Explain the Unity and Diversity of Life.


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The Three Domains of Life


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“Descent With Modification”


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Connections

  • Observation #1– Individual variation

  • Observation #2 – Struggle for existence

  • Inference – Differential reproductive success or “Natural Selection”

Natural Selection Is An Editing Process


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The Process Of Science

“Science Is A Way Of Knowing”


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Idealized Scientific Method

Inductive Reasoning


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Hypothetico-deductive Reasoning

“If…then” Logic


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“Fishing” For Answers


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Theories Have Broad Explanatory Power

Theories Are Comprehensive


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