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The Qing Empire. Jialin Ke. Economic and Social Disorder (1800-1839). Population Pressure Expansion of agricultural base by early emperors which supported a doubling of the population growth. Formation of the unemployed and homeless Population strain causes environmental damage.

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economic and social disorder 1800 1839
Economic and Social Disorder (1800-1839)
  • Population Pressure
    • Expansion of agricultural base by early emperors which supported a doubling of the population growth.
    • Formation of the unemployed and homeless
    • Population strain causes environmental damage.
  • Distrust in Government
    • Suspicions among the people that all government officials were corrupt.
    • Qing were hated because they were seen as foreign conquerors
    • People did not like the growing number of foreigners
    • The Qing were suspected of sympathy with the Europeans
economic and social disorder
Economic and Social Disorder
  • White Lotus Rebellion
    • Inspired by the idea that the Ming Dynasty would be restored and the coming of the Buddha
    • Started in 1794, spread, and not suppressed until 1804
    • Causes more internal conflicts throughout the 1800s
      • Social instabilities, local ethnic conflicts
the opium war and its aftermath 1839 1850
The Opium War and its aftermath (1839-1850)
  • British colonies in India smuggle opium into China
    • The Qing were not aware of the growing opium trade until laterwhen the government realized the harm
    • 1729, the first Qing law banned opium imports
    • By 1800, annual import of 4000 chests of opium, through smuggling
    • By 1830, a price war caused by competition between America and Britain, raises opium demands to an annual import of 30,000 chests
    • Widespread addiction
the opium war and its aftermath 1839 18503
The Opium War and its aftermath (1839-1850)
  • The emperor decides to enforce the existing ban on opium more strictly and sent Lin ZeXu to deal with the issue.
  • Opium War (1839-1842)
    • The British saw that the opium ban would limit their trade and threaten Britain’s economy.
    • Bannermen– hereditary military servants of the Qing Empire
    • Qing lost terribly because the British had superior technology.
      • Bannermen still used muskets
      • British gunboats
the opium war and its aftermath 1839 18506
The Opium War and its aftermath (1839-1850)
  • Qing decides to negotiate.
    • Treaty of Nanjing 1842: - 5 treaty ports (cities open to foreign residents), British residents gain extraterritorial rights, and Hong Kong becomes a British colony, low taxes on 5% of imports, an indemnity of 21million ounces of silver,
    • Supplementary treaty one year later: guarantees most-favored-nation status to Britain, meaning that any privileges given to another country would also be given to Britain.
  • Results in many treaties with other foreigners
    • By 1900, over 90 treaty ports
    • China suffers territorial losses as Europeans claim colonies
the taiping rebellion 1850 1864
The Taiping rebellion (1850-1864)
  • Originated in Guangxi province and initiated by Hong Xiuquan
    • Poor farmland, poverty, ethnic divisions (that forced the Hakka people to the despised trades)
  • Hong Xiuquan
    • Was inspired by Protestant missionaries’ teachings and thought that he was commissioned by God to drive out the Qings to found a new kingdom on earth. He called this movement the “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”.
    • His followers were mainly the Hakkas
  • Military Reforms
    • New military units
the taiping rebellion 1850 18641
The Taiping rebellion (1850-1864)
  • Taipings vs. Manchus (Qing)
    • Taiping forces defeat imperial troops in Guangxi
    • Taipings (followers of Hong Xiuquan) grew in numbers. They attract followers by replacing their anti-Chinese appeals used to enlist Hakkas with anti-Manchu to enlist Chinese.
    • Recruited villagers were separated men and women to organize them into work teams.
  • Taipings Capture Nanjing and make it their capital
the taiping rebellion 1850 18643
The Taiping rebellion (1850-1864)
  • Foreign Intervention
    • Britain and France launches a second opium war called the Arrow War (1856-1860) because they felt that the Qing had not observed all the provisions of the treaties.
    • Britain and France invade Beijing and sack Summer Palace.
    • Creates more treaties
    • Satisfied, British and French joins Qing against the Taipings
  • Qing defeats Taiping with help from British and French forces, and military forces organized by governors (Zeng Guofan).
the taiping rebellion 1850 18644
The Taiping rebellion (1850-1864)
  • Taiping Rebellion was the world’s bloodiest civil war.
    • Death estimates from 20 million to 30 million.
    • Most deaths were from starvation and disease.
  • Results:
    • Depopulation and destruction of rich agricultural lands in central and eastern China
    • Suffering and destruction in the cities and cultural centers of eastern China.
  • Death and Disease
    • Taipings flee to Laos and Vietname which was infested by the bubonic plague. Disease spreads to Hong Kong, Singapore, San Francisco, etc.
decentralization at the end of the qing empire 1864 1875
Decentralization at the End of the Qing Empire (1864-1875)
  • Qing was completely bankrupt.
    • Expenditures were 10x revenues
    • Indemnities demanded by Britain.
    • Rice fields and productive land was destroyed.
    • Refugees needed relief and troops demanded wages.
  • Because the Qing were in their debt, Britain and France help in the period of recovery known as the Tongzhi Restoration.
    • Zeng Guofan manages recovery work and uses United States as his model. He hired Americans to run his factories and also sent the Chinese to America to learn.
decentralization at the end of the qing empire 1864 18751
Decentralization at the End of the Qing Empire (1864-1875)
  • Reform programs were supported by Empress Dowager Cixibut they were unable to prevent the Empire from disintegration.
  • The empire came under the control of a group of reformist aristocrats, military men, independently civilian governors, and foreign advisers. There was no central, unified leadership and the Qing Empire dissolved into large power zones.
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