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A CASE STUDY ON THE STATUS AND USE OF GARCINIA BUCHANANII IN UGANDA FRANCIS OGWAL NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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A CASE STUDY ON THE STATUS AND USE OF GARCINIA BUCHANANII IN UGANDA FRANCIS OGWAL NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY. UNEP NAIROBI 12-15 2006. INTRODUCTION. Uganda signed and ratified the CBD 12 th June 1992 and 8 th September 1993 respectively

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A CASE STUDY ON THE STATUS AND USE OF GARCINIA BUCHANANII IN UGANDA FRANCIS OGWAL NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY

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A CASE STUDY ON THE STATUS AND USE OF GARCINIA BUCHANANII IN UGANDA

FRANCIS OGWAL

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY

UNEP NAIROBI 12-15 2006


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INTRODUCTION

  • Uganda signed and ratified the CBD 12th June 1992 and 8th September 1993 respectively

  • Uganda also signed the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on 24th May 2000 and ratified it on 30th November 2001

  • The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995 has provision for the protection and management of natural resources which includes biodiversity

  • Uganda has put in place a number of laws and policies on conservation and management of natural resources/biodiversity – the National Environment Act, the Wildlife Act, the National Forestry and Tree Planting Act,

  • The policies include National Environment Management Policy, Forestry Policy, Wetlands Policy,


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Introduction continued

  • Uganda has a rich natural resource base including biodiversity – Forests, wetlands, lakes, wildlife, rivers,

  • By 1991 population census, there were 24 million people. It is estimated that the population is 26.8 million people (2005 estimates)

  • The population growth rate is 3.3% per annum

  • About 80% of the population depends on natural resources for its livelihood, with an estimated 97% dependent on firewood for energy

  • The major challenges: Deforestation, loss of biodiversity, soil degradation, drainage of wetlands, siltation of water bodies, poverty


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Location of Uganda in Africa


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THE CASE STUDY

  • What agricultural resource is being exploited?

  • Garcinia buchananii. It is an indigenous fruit species which occurs as single individual trees, belonging to the family- Guttiferae

  • Location, use and general status of the plant

  • The species is not common but is widely distributed in Uganda

  • Viable population of the species is found in Bukaleba Central Forest Reserve


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Ecological characteristics of the Bukaleba CFR

  • Bukaleba CFR has an area of 97km2/ 9,663 ha with altitudinal ranges of 1158m -1334m ASL and lies between 330 18’ and 330 32’E and 00 11’ and 00 15’S.

  • Bukaleba CFR is located along the shores of Lake Victoria (Map 1). Hence it’s a catchment protection forest for Lake Victoria

  • It was gazetted a Forest Reserve in 1968

  • The vegetation is broadly classified as medium altitude moist semi-deciduous forest

  • Biodiversity inventory of 1994 recorded 96 species of plants. It has one restricted-range species – Loranthus fischeri. 3 Other forest in which this species have been recorded are Kagombe, Labwor Hills and Morungole


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Ecological characteristics of the Bukaleba CFR

  • A total of 47 species of birds were recorded in the forest in 1994, most of which are forest-dependent species (57%)

  • No restricted-range, endemic or threatened species were recorded

  • A total of 99 species of butterflies were registered during the same inventory- 5 Papilionidae, 15 Lycaethidae, 55 Nymphalidae and 5 Hesperiidae

  • 50% of the butterflies were forest-dependent, with 4 restricted range species recorded

  • The restricted range species – Dixeia charina, Pentila umangiana, Charaxes ethalion, Charaxes, jahlusa


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Use of Garcinia buchananii

  • Medicinal value - Bark and roots used for treatment of STDs –Gonorrhea

  • Debarking is carried out most of the year

  • Food value - the fruits are edible, collected by both men, women and children

  • Collection of fruits – done December - February

  • Much of the use is for subsistence although traditional medicine men charge a small fee for treatment of STDs


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Status of Garcinia buchananii

  • The population of the species is decreasing mainly due to unsustainable harvesting methods and encroachment on the forest reserve where it has a viable population.

  • Herbalists have indicated increasing distance to find the plant. In addition, Bukaleba CFR is severely depleted - human settlements, conversion to farmland-subsistence agriculture, illegal of animals, charcoal burning, cutting of trees for firewood and poles for construction

  • Unsustainable harvesting-debarking and cutting of roots which is causing death to the plant, hence the species is disappearing in some of the sites where herbalist carry out debarking


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Illustration of unsustainable use


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Management of the Resource

  • Management of Bukaleba CFR is under the National Forestry (NFA) is established by the NFTPA 2003;

  • The NFTPA 2003 prohibits cutting, disturbing or damaging any forest produce without a license from NFA;

  • The NFTPA 2003 provides for Collaborative Forest Management with the local communities adjacent to the forest reserve


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Management of the Resource

  • The NFTPA 2003 requires any use of a forest reserve to done in accordance with a Management Plan (MP).

  • Draft MP for Bukaleba CFR for the period 2006-2016 prepared. Its awaiting approval by the NFA Board of Directors and the Minister responsible for forestry

  • Preparation of the MP for Bukaleba involved wide stakeholder consultation including herbalist, farmers, hunters, local leaders, donors, NGOs, Central and local governments


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Management Plan for Bukaleba CFR

  • The objectives of the MP are among others to:

  • Promote pole and firewood plantations

  • Promote watershed management and nature conservation – to protect indigenous vegetation and biodiversity. All existing patches of forest to be left intact during plantation establishment

  • Develop partnership arrangements with the private sector in sustainable forest management

  • The MP has the following zones: Production Zone – commercial plantation, Community Plantation Zone -planting trees for firewood, Protection Zone -around the lake-biodiversity conservation area.


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Conservation measures proposed

  • Collection and preservation of germplasm materials in form of seeds, seedlings- Seeds have been planted at Botanical Gardens-seedlings to be given to herbalists for planting as well as to FORRI

  • Immediate establishment of seed or genebanks at regional and national level- Studies of the physiology of the seed being undertaken before seeds can be dried and stored in the gene bank

  • EIA to be carried out by NFA for plantation establishment. This mandatory under the NEA Cap 153, NFTPA 2003 and the EIA Regulations 1998

  • Control of grazing or total restriction of domestic animals as they browse on the seedlings and saplings


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Use of CBD tools

  • Ecosystems approach- Being used to promote management of fragile ecosystems like wetlands, hilly and mountainous areas, lake shores and river banks

  • Addis Ababa Principle 1 – Supportive policies, laws and institutions put in place by Government – NEMP, NEA, NEMA-Coordinating institution

  • Addis Ababa Principle 2 and 12 – ABS Regulations in Place, rights of local communities to benefit from use of biodiversity – MTA

  • Addis Ababa Principle 5 – EIA is carried out to promote sustainable use of biological diversity as well as the application of the precautionary approach


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Use of CBD tools

  • Addis Ababa Principle 8 – The EAC has developed a Protocol on Environment and natural resources, furthermore EIA for Shared Ecosystems is under preparation. Uganda has participated fully in the development of the Protocol and the EIA Guidelines

  • Addis Ababa Principle 9 - Inter-institution collaboration in place for the management and conservation of biological diversity – The Biodiversity Conservation Coordination Initiative

  • Addis Ababa Principle – 14: Public awareness and education on conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity on-going- national to local level.


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Use of CBD tools

  • Principle 14 continued: Environment incorporated in primary school curriculum. At the tertiary institutions-programmes on environment and natural resources management is on-going–e.g. Zoology, Botany, Forestry, Environment

  • Challenges in implementing Addis Ababa Principle 10 – creating capacity for natural resource valuation,

  • The Akwe: Kon Voluntary Guidelines is addressed through the EIA process which include consultation with the local communities, cultural leaders and public hearing. The approval of EIAs by NEMA- conditions given which have to be adhered to during project implementation. Government has put in place EIA Guidelines, reference Manual for EIA and EIA Regulations.

  • Government is in the process of adopting the draft National Policy on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture


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Policy on PGRFA

  • Uganda’s PGRFA is found in natural ecosystems, on farms and public lands, but are being eroded – due to loss of biodiversity from destructive use, diseases, introduction of high yielding varieties etc

  • Uganda PGRFA currently documented are: over 96 crop species, 209 species of wild edible plants and mushrooms, 219 trees and shrubs for food or feed, 524 species from 55 genera used as forages

  • Thus PGRFA are the basis and foundation for agricultural system and therefore the cornerstone Uganda’s economy and livelihoods of its population


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Overall policy objective

  • A review of the major policies and laws – PGRFA not adequate but do have general statements on sustainable use of biodiversity.

  • The overall objective of the policy is to ensure the conservation, sustainable use and management of Uganda’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture while optimizing their full potential in contributing to government’s major development goals of food security, poverty eradication and improvement of peoples’ livelihoods.

  • The scope:- The policy applies to PGRFA whether naturally occurring or naturalized including intended for commercial purposes within Uganda or for export, whether in-situ or ex-situ conditions


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The need for the policy on PGRFA

  • The policy provides a framework for:

  • Ensuring the availability of the resources for the present and future generations. This is also in line with the over goal of NEMP of 1994 and MDG No. 7

  • Harnessing the full potential of PGRFA for national devt and improvement of livelihoods – Poverty reduction – MDG No.1. The NEMP- biodiversity sustainablly managed for national development

  • Mobilize and direct investments for conservation and management of PGRFA

  • Fill existing national legal and policy vacuum on PGRFA and to fulfill international obligations on the conservation, use and sustainable management of PGRFA


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Implementation of the policy

  • The Ministry of agriculture will be the primary implementer working with other key stakeholders since the policy by its scope cuts across Government sectors, institutions

  • Implementation will also require collaboration with the private sector, CSOs, Development Partners and International Agencies

  • Funding - Government will enhance the public and private sector investment into the management and sustainable use of PGRFA

  • Other funds – grants and funding mechanisms internationally established to support PGRFA activities

  • The policy will have a six year review cycle.


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