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TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II. AXLE LOAD AND ESAL. AXLE LOADS.

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Transportation engineering ii

TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II

AXLE LOAD AND ESAL


Axle loads
AXLE LOADS

  • One of the primary functions of a pavement is its load distribution. Therefore, in order to adequately design a pavement something must be known about the expected loads it will carry during its design life. Loads, the vehicle forces exerted on the pavement (e.g., by trucks, heavy machinery, airplanes), can be characterized by the following parameters:  

    • Tire loads

    • Axle and tire configurations

    • Repetition of loads

    • Distribution of traffic across the pavement

    • Vehicle speed



Standard axle load
STANDARD AXLE LOAD axle loading. Vehicle loads of private cars and vans contributes very little to structural deterioration. For the purpose of pavement thickness design, only commercial traffic is considered.

  • Different tests were performed to calculate the thickness of pavement, in relation to the no. of vehicles passing over various portions of roads. Statistical analysis of the data collected showed that relative damaging effect of an axle was approximately proportional to the fourth power of the load which it carries, irrespective of the type or thickness of the pavement.


  • An axle carrying a load of 18,000 lbs (8160 kg) was arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.

  • The damaging effects of lighter and heavier axles were expressed as equivalence factors as shown in Table. The equivalence factor of .0002 for the 910-kg axle load means that 5000 a passes of such an axle would do the same damaging effect as one pass of standard axle.


*Standard axle arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.


Equivalent standard axle load
EQUIVALENT STANDARD AXLE LOAD arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.

  • This approach converts wheel loads of various magnitudes and repetitions ("mixed traffic") to an equivalent number of "standard" or "equivalent" loads based on the amount of damage they do to the pavement. The commonly used standard load is the 18,000 lb. Equivalent Single Axle load. Using the ESAL method, all loads (including multi-axle loads) are converted to an equivalent number of 18,000 lb. single axle loads, which is then used for design. A "load equivalency factor" represents the equivalent number of ESAL’s for the given weight-axle combination.


Generalized fourth power law
Generalized Fourth Power Law arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.

  • A rule-of-thumb, the damage caused by a particular load is roughly related to the load by a power of four (for reasonably strong pavement surfaces). For example,

  • A 18,000 lb (80 kN) single axle, LEF =1.0

  • A 30,000 lb (133 kN) single axle, LEF = 7.6

  • Comparing the two, the ratio is: 7.6/1.0 = 7.6

    Using the fourth power rule-of-thumb:

    Thus, the two estimates are approximately equal


Traffic Loads Characterization arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.

Pavement Thickness Design Are Developed

To Account For The Entire

Spectrum Of Traffic Loads

Cars

Pickups

Buses

Trucks

Trailers


13.6 Tons arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.

Failure = 10,000 Repetitions

11.3 Tons

Failure = 100,000 Repetitions

4.5 Tons

Failure = 1,000,000 Repetitions

2.3 Tons

Failure = 10,000,000 Repetitions

4.5 Tons

13.6 Tons

Failure = Repetitions ?

11.3 Tons

2.3 Tons


RELATIVE DAMAGE CONCEPT arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.

Equivalent

Standard ESAL

Axle Load

18000 - Ibs

(8.2 tons)

Damage per Pass = 1

  • Axle loads bigger than 8.2 tons cause damage greater than one per pass

  • Axle loads smaller than 8.2 tons cause damage less than one per pass

  • Load Equivalency Factor (L.E.F) = (? Tons/8.2 tons)4


= arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.

16.4 Tons Axle

8.2 Tons Axle

EXAMPLE

Consider two single axles A and B where:

  • A-Axle = 16.4 tons

  • Damage caused per pass by A -Axle = (16.4/8.2)4 = 16

  • This means that A-Axle causes same amount of damage per pass as caused by 16 passes of standard 8.2 tons axle i.e,


= arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.

4.1 Tons Axle

8.2 Tons Axle

EXAMPLE

Consider two single axles A and B where:

  • B-Axle = 4.1 tons

  • Damage caused per pass by B-Axle = (4.1/8.2)4 = 0.0625

  • This means that B-Axle causes only 0.0625 times damage per pass as caused by 1 pass of standard 8.2 tons axle.

  • In other works, 16 passes (1/0.625) of B-Axle cause same amount of damage as caused by 1 pass of standard 8.2 tons axle i.e.,


AXLE LOAD & RELATIVE DAMAGE arbitrarily defined in the AASHO road test as a Standard Axle, with a damaging effect of unity.


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