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LOGO. "Turtle Graphics“ for kids. . History. Logo: from Greek logos for “word” Developed by a team at MIT in 1960s Notable: Seymour Papert Mathematician from Geneva Worked with Piaget who influenced him Designed as a dialect of LISP. Why the Turtle?.

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LOGO

"Turtle Graphics“ for kids.


History

  • Logo: from Greek logos for “word”

  • Developed by a team at MIT in 1960s

  • Notable: Seymour Papert

    • Mathematician from Geneva

    • Worked with Piaget who influenced him

  • Designed as a dialect of LISP


Why the Turtle?

  • Originally a robotic creature sat on floor

    • Domed shape with shell-like electronics casing

    • Slow movement of device

  • Directed to move around and draw by typing commands at computer

  • Designed to be programmed by children

  • Less expensive version created on computer


Object Logo

MacLogo

Logo Learner

IBM Logo

Comenius Logo

WIN LOGO

PC LOGO

LEGO LOGO

LEGO LOGO

Evolution

  • 130 existing implementations

  • Driven by commercial and regional factors

1977

1985

1993

1967

2003

TILOGO

Apple LOGO

Atari Logo

LOGO Writer

Logo Grafico

MicroWorlds LOGO

Mach Turtles Logo

UCB Logo

MSWLogo


Language Concepts

  • Basic commands

  • Control Structures

    • while condition [instruction list]

    • until condition [instruction list ]

    • repeat number [instruction list]

  • Recursion (preferred paradigm)

  • Scoping

    • Global variables: if not declared before use

    • Local variables:

      • may be declared

      • Input variables for functions are local


Basic commands

  • Forward 100 (FD 100) - moves the turtle forward 100 units

  • Back 50 (BK 50) - moves the turtle back 50 units

  • Right 45 (RT 45) - turns the turtle 45 degrees to the right

  • Left 90 (LT 90) - turns the turtle 90 degrees to the left

  • Home - Returns the turtle to its origin

  • ClearSceen (CS) - Erases the screen


Features

  • Graphics / Music

  • Extensibles: basic operations “primitives.”

  • Working Definitions: allows for user-defined new definitions

  • Modularity

  • Interactivity

  • Flexibility


Recursion

to spiral :size

if :size > 30 [stop] ; a condition stop fd :size rt 15 ; many lines of actionspiral :size *1.02 ; the tailend recursive call

end


MSW LOGO Implemenation

Source: http://www.softronix.com


Example: Square

  • Turtle Moves forward 100 units and

    turns 90º 4 times

    FD 100 RT 90 FD 100 RT 90

    FD 100 RT 90 FD 100 RT 90

    REPEAT 4 [FD 100 RT 90]

Source: http://mckoss.com/logo/


Examples

Source: http://www.yukoncollege.yk.ca/


Future of Logo

  • New Releases of LOGO:

    • NetLogo

      • Parallel modeling and simulation

      • Northwestern University

    • StarLogo

      • MIT


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