Perspectives on grid technology
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Perspectives on Grid Technology. Ian Foster Argonne National Laboratory The University of Chicago. Background: Why “Grids”?. Because the resources needed to solve complex problems are rarely colocated Advanced scientific instruments Large amounts of storage Large amounts of computing

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Perspectives on grid technology

Perspectives onGrid Technology

Ian Foster

Argonne National Laboratory

The University of Chicago


Background why grids

Background: Why “Grids”?

  • Because the resources needed to solve complex problems are rarely colocated

    • Advanced scientific instruments

    • Large amounts of storage

    • Large amounts of computing

    • Groups of smart people

  • For a variety of reasons

    • Resource allocations not optimized for 1 appln

    • Required resource configurations change

    • Different views of priorities and truth


Grid application examples

Online analysis of

instrument data

Teleimmersion/distance

collaboration

TransAtlantic remote

visualization/steering

Record-setting distributed

supercomputing

Parameter studies with

deadline scheduling

GridApplicationExamples


Hence grids

Hence, Grids

  • Next-gen infrastructure

    • Advanced network services

    • Computers, storage, etc.

    • New tools, methodologies

  • Foundation for advanced network applications, e.g.

    • Data-intensive (Data Grid)

    • Collaborative (Access Grid)

    • Compute-intensive

    • Online instrumentation

Akamai’s server network (Jan 2000)


Grid r d a brief history

Grid R&D: A Brief History

  • Late 80s/early 90s: Isolated experiments

    • Gigabit testbeds, metacomputing expts

  • Mid 90s: first attempts at integration

    • E.g., 1995 I-WAY and I-Soft software

  • Late 90s: emergence of infrastructure and identification of new usage modalities

    • Globus toolkit, Access Grid, Data Grid

    • Grid Forum, production Grid infrastructures

  • 2000+: Grids go mainstream

    • “Grid services” integrated into network


Creating a usable grid grid services middleware

Creating a Usable Grid :Grid Services (“Middleware”)

  • Standard grid services that

    • Provide uniform, high-level access to a wide range of resources (including networks)

    • Address interdomain issues of security, policy, etc.

    • Permit application-level management and monitoring of end-to-end performance

  • Middleware-level and higher-level APIs and tools targeted at application programmers

    • Map between application and Grid


Grid services architecture an emerging grid computing framework

Grid Services Architecture:An Emerging Grid Computing Framework

… a rich variety of applications ...

Applns

Appln

Toolkits

Remote

data

toolkit

Async.

collab.

toolkit

Remote

sensors

toolkit

Remote

comp.

toolkit

Remote

viz

toolkit

...

Protocols, authentication, policy, resource

management, instrumentation, discovery, etc., etc.

Grid

Services

Grid

Fabric

Archives, networks, computers, display devices, etc.;

associated local services


Perspectives on grid technology

Remote data

for climate

Remote viz

for CFD

Grid MPI

Data Grid

Toolkit

Co-allocator

Advantages of GSA

  • Single infrastructure

  • Avoid redundant development

  • Encourage code sharing

Applns

Appln

Toolkits

Remote

data

toolkit

Async.

collab.

toolkit

Remote

sensors

toolkit

Remote

comp.

toolkit

Remote

viz

toolkit

...

Authentication

Information

Reservation

Fault detection

Protocols, authentication, policy, resource

management, instrumentation, discovery, etc., etc.

Grid

Services

Res. mgmt

Accounting

Instrumentation

...

Archives, networks, computers, display devices, etc.;

associated local services

Grid

Fabric


Perspectives on grid technology

I-WAY

NSF PACI’s National Technology Grid

National and International Grid Testbeds

NASA’s Information Power Grid


Perspectives on grid technology

European Grid Testbeds

www.egrid.org


Perspectives on grid technology

http://www.globus.org


A current focus data grids

A Current Focus: Data Grids

  • Integrate data archives & computers into a distributed data management & analysis “Grid”

  • More than storage, computing, network: also

    • Caching and mirroring to exploit locality

    • Intelligent scheduling to determine appropriate replica, site for (re)computation, etc.

    • Coordinated policy-driven resource management for performance guarantees

    • Embedded security, policy, agent technologies for effective distributed analysis


Grid services and the data grid resource management architecture

“10 GFlops, EOS data,

20 Mb/sec -- for 20 mins”

GRAM

GRAM

GRAM

Grid Services and the Data Grid:Resource Management Architecture

Info service:

location + selection

Grid

Information

Service

Resource

Broker

“What computers?”

“What speed?”

“When available?”

“20 Mb/sec”

GRAM

Resource

Managers

“50 processors + storage

from 10:20 to 10:40 pm”

Fork

LSF

EASYLL

Condor

etc.


Scheduling bulk transfer and high priority transfers

Scheduling Bulk Transferand High-Priority Transfers


Grids and hep computing

Grids and HEP Computing

  • HEP computing: a Grid project par excellence

    • Tight integration of computing, storage, networking; demanding requirements

    • Focus on services for a large community

  • HEP computing brings new problems, e.g.

    • Big increase in scale

    • Object database technology

    • Complex policy issues

  • HEP also contributes interesting technologies

    • E.g., MONARC simulator, NILE, GIOD


Summary

Summary

  • Grids promise to enable qualitatively new approaches to science and engineering

  • Key enabler is the integration of advanced resources with new Grid services and tools

  • To date, wonderful application demonstrations, considerable progress in key technologies, some early attempts at real deployment

  • Timely for scientific communities such as HEP to investigate and apply for real


For more information

For More Information ...

  • Globus: www.globus.org

  • (European) Grid Forum:

    www.gridforum.org

    www.egrid.org

  • Grid book

    “The Grid: Blueprint for a Future Computing Infrastructure,” I. Foster & C. Kesselman (Eds), Morgan-Kaufmann, 1999

    http://www.mkp.com/grids


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