Module 3 building the team session 3 3 communication and motivation fundamentals of communication
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Module 3 Building the Team Session 3.3 Communication and Motivation: Fundamentals of Communication. Session Objectives — Communications. At the end of the session, learners should be able to: Explain why communication is important in a project setting

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Module 3 building the team session 3 3 communication and motivation fundamentals of communication

Module 3Building the TeamSession 3.3 Communication and Motivation: Fundamentals of Communication


Session objectives communications

Session Objectives — Communications

At the end of the session, learners should be able to:

  • Explain why communication is important in a project setting

  • Describe the classical sender-receiver model of communication

  • Identify possible sources of miscommunication

  • Identify their personal communication styles

  • Use the communication model to improve communications on a project


Session objectives motivation

Session Objectives — Motivation

At the end of the session, learners should be able to:

  • Explain why motivation is important in a project setting

  • Describe at least 3 theories of motivation

  • Explain the importance of linking rewards with desired consequences

  • Apply one or more theories of motivation to project situations


Session objectives communications

Communication

  • An iterative process for developing shared meaning and mutual understanding

Idea1

Idea3

Shared

Meaning

express

Person A

interpret

A

B

interpret

Person B

express

Idea4

Idea2

and then...


Session objectives communications

The project manager’s communication links for developing common understanding and commitment

Top

management

Company policy and resources

Progress reports and messages

Project direction and messages

Progress reports

Project

manager

Line managers,

other projects

Stakeholders

  • Concerns

  • Requirements

  • Advice

Reports and messages

Reports and Messages

Project Direction/Leadership

Personnel assigned to project


Project manager s communication roles

Project Manager’s Communication Roles

  • Effective Communicator/Presenter

  • Communication Strategist

  • Communication Coach


Classical sender receiver model

Classical Sender-Receiver Model

Message

Idea A

Idea B

?

SharedMeaning

A

B

Feedback

Sender (A)

Receiver

(B)

(2 WAY MODEL)


Types of communication

Types of Communication

Message

Message

Feedback

2-Way

1-Way

  • Mass media

  • Telephone messages

  • Videotapes / announcements

  • Posting on the Internet

  • Written memos and reports

  • Synchronous (real time)

    • Face-to-face conversation

    • Telephone call

    • Video

  • Asynchronous (delay)

    • Computer

    • Voice mail messaging

    • Letter writing


Complex sender receiver model with barriers

Complex Sender-Receiver Model—with barriers

1. Sender has

2. Sender encodes meaning into

3. Sender transmitsmessage using

4. Receiver getsmessage anddecodes

MEANING

Idea

Knowledge

Information

Feeling

MESSAGE

Words

Sounds

Pictures

Organization

TECHNOLOGY

Storage

Media

Channel(s)

MESSAGE

Words

Sounds

Pictures

Organization

5.Receiverinterpretsmeaning

6. Receiver creates & sends feedback message

7. Sender gets feedback message.

MEANINGIdea

Knowledge

Information

Feeling

REPEAT PROCESS

Formulate meaning

Encode into message

and transmit via

media and channel(s)

REPEAT PROCESS

Repeat until a mutually shared meaning develops or parties stop communicating. Each transition is a possible barrier or filter that can result in faulty communication


Barriers and distorting filters

  • Personality style

  • Technical expertise

  • Organizational affiliation

  • Status

  • Gender

  • Ethnicity

  • Social class

  • Religion

  • Culture

Barriers and Distorting Filters

Sending

Receiving

Transmission

Human Barriers


Thought problem

Thought Problem

  • The Project:A health care project involving facilities construction, medical services, and outreach aimed at prenatal women

  • The Team:Engineering, Accounting, and Human Services (equal numbers of men and women with much diversity)

  • The Challenge:Minimize communication barriers and build strong teams

  • Your Task:Identify potential communication barriers


Some potential barriers to communication

Some Potential Barriers to Communication

  • Native language

  • Semantics / language usage

  • Culture / geography

  • Personality / communication styles

  • Gender

    • communication styles

    • life experiences

  • Religion

  • Technical expertise

  • Organizational affiliation


Communication rules for project managers

Communication Rules for Project Managers

Rule 1 - Recognize the potential for error when communicating

Rule 2 - Know your audience: Sender/receiver differences increase the likelihood of miscommunication

Rule 3 - The chance of miscommunication increases as the number of people in the process increases

Rule 4 - Match media/channels to content and purpose. Use two-way channels for ambiguous or emotion-laden content

Rule 5 - Know your own communication style and adapt to the situation


Four styles of communication

Four Styles of Communication

  • Action-oriented

  • Process-oriented

  • People-oriented

  • Idea-oriented


Styles

Styles

  • Everyone has 4 styles to some degree

  • Most people have a dominant style

  • Style can adapt to a situation (not fixed)

  • All 4 styles needed on a project team


Uses in project management

Uses in Project Management

  • Know own style for better communication

  • Understand where people are “coming from”

  • Anticipate conflict when styles clash

  • Build needed strengths into your team

  • Use team members’ strengths in jobs


Summary

Summary

  • Communication is essential to project leadership and team building

  • Process of creating shared meaning and mutual understanding

  • Error-prone process (barriers and filters)

  • Classical sender-receiver model

  • Five “Rules” for Project Managers


Module 3 building the team session 3 3 communication and motivation fundamentals of motivation

Module 3Building the TeamSession 3.3 Communication and Motivation: Fundamentals of Motivation


Motivation

Motivation

  • Motus = to move

  • Why people do what they do

  • Reasons people act

  • Amount of energy or effort expended


Motivation pursuit of a goal or objective

MOTIVATION = Pursuit of a Goal or Objective

Achieve

Objective


Some theories of motivation

Some Theories of Motivation

  • Hierarchy of Needs(Maslow)

  • Goal Setting Theory(Locke)

  • Reinforcement Theory(Skinner)

  • Equity Theory(Adams)

  • Expectancy Theory(Vroom)


Hierarchy of needs

Hierarchy of Needs

  • Behavior is driven by needs

  • Needs are internal states within an individual

  • Unmet needs cause a state of tension

  • Unmet needs cause behavior that seeks to reduce tension and satisfy needs

  • Individuals have a common set of hierarchical needs


Maslow s hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

“Higher Level”

5 Self Actualization: sense of maximizing potential

4Esteem: responsibility, self-respect, recognition

3Social: companionship, affection, affiliation

2Safety: security, protection from pain and discomfort

1Physiological: hunger, thirst, sex

“Lower Level”


Maslow s hierarchy of needs and the elements of job design

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the Elements of Job Design

Self-actualization is not an endpoint

but a self-renewing need/drive.

Self-

Actualization

Needs

Reaching your

potential

Independence

Creativity

Self-Expression

  • Involvement in planning your work

  • Opportunities for growth and development

  • Creative work

  • Freedom to make decisions

  • Status symbols

  • Recognition, awards

  • Challenging work

  • Opportunity for advancement

  • Sharing decision making

Esteem Needs

Responsibility

Self-Respect

Recognition

Sense of Accomplishment

Sense of Competence

Sense of Equity

Social/Affiliation Needs

Companionship

Acceptance

Love and Affection

Group Membership

  • Opportunities to interact/network

  • Team-based work

  • Friendly co-workers

  • Fringe benefits

  • Job security

  • Sound policies and practices

  • Proper supervision

  • Safe working conditions

Safety/Security Needs

Security for Self and Possessions

Avoidance of Risks

Avoidance of Harm

Avoidance of Pain

  • Adequate compensation

  • Rest periods

  • Labor-saving devices

  • Efficient work methods

Physiological Needs

Food

Clothing

Shelter

Comfort

Self-preservation

How the Workplace Can

Meet These Needs

(Adapted from Vijay K. Verma, Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager, Volume 2, 1996, Project Management Institute, Upper Darby, PA, Figure 2.2)


Goal setting theory

Goal Setting Theory

  • Developed by Edwin Locke

  • Well supported by research

  • Intention (goals) drive behavior

  • Motivation Influenced by:

    • Specificity of Goal or Objective

    • Degree of Challenge

    • Acceptance of Goal

    • Feedback


Goal setting theory continued

Goal Setting Theory (continued)

Findings:

  • Specific goals are more motivating than general ones

  • Challenging goals are more motivating than less challenging goals

  • People must “accept” a goal for it to be motivational

  • Feedback, especially self-generated, improves motivation

  • Participation in goal setting affects motivation


Smart objectives or goals

“SMART” Objectives or Goals

  • Specific-one specific (observable)accomplishment

  • Measurable-attainment can be easilyassessed

  • Attainable-achievement is possible giventime, resources, and person’slevel of knowledge and skills

  • Rewarding-attainment satisfies personalneed or objective

  • Time-bound- realistic start/finish dates (timeline)are established


Influences on goal setting theory

Influences on Goal Setting Theory

  • Availability of Feedback

  • Commitment (acceptance of goals)

  • Self-efficacy

  • National Culture


The course s 12 step planning process

The Course’s 12-Step Planning Process

  • Framework for group and individual goal setting

  • Participatory — Team can collectively set SMART goals (objectives)

  • Provides feedback on team performance


Reinforcement theory

Reinforcement Theory

  • Primary advocate: B.F. Skinner

  • Behavior is determined by the consequences it produces

  • Reinforcers increase likelihood a behavior will reoccur

  • Neutral or punishing consequences decrease likelihood behavior will reoccur

  • Feedback is key element in reinforcement theory

  • Extinction - Unrewarded behaviors “go away” over time


Rewards

Rewards

  • Satisfy Needs

  • Intrinsic: Usually intangible and inherent to the behavior being performed

    • examples: joy of a low golf score; feeling of achievement from goal attainment

  • Extrinsic: External to the behavior being performed, usually tangible

    • examples: pay, promotion, certificates

    • useful when a performing behavior is not intrinsically rewarding

  • Extrinsic rewards can negate Intrinsic rewards


  • Rules for modifying behavior

    Rules for Modifying Behavior

    Reward every occurrence of the behavior

    (or approximation of the behavior)

    To establish a new (desired) behavior

    Reward the behavior as soon as possible after it occurs. Timing is important! The shorter the delay between the behavior and the reward, the better.

    To maintain an established (desired) behavior

    Reward intermittently at random intervals

    1. Ignore it — do not reinforce it! It will gradually “extinguish itself” (slow

    process)

    To stop an undesired behavior

    2. Punish it (fast process)


    The power of contingency if then

    The Power of Contingency: IF-THEN

    • Rewards Should Be Contingent on Performance!

      • Reinforce desired performance — say “thanks”

      • Don’t ignore desired performance

      • Don’t reward undesired performance

  • Use Rewards to Recognize and Strengthen Positive Behaviors


  • Thought problem1

    Thought Problem

    How Would You Use Reinforcement Theoryin This Situation?

    • To Encourage Team Members to bring potential problems to the group for resolution and not wait for problems to develop


    Possible strategies for thought problems

    Possible Strategies for Thought Problems

    Using Reinforcement Theory

    • Don’t punish people who bring potential problems to group

      • Yourself

      • Other team members

      • Other managers

  • Reward team members who bring potential problems into the open

    • Yourself

    • Other team members

  • Reward team members who support others


  • Limitations of reinforcement theory

    Limitations of Reinforcement Theory

    • Rewards and punishments are “subjective” and vary

    • Project manager has limited control over consequences


    Equity theory

    Equity Theory

    • Developed by Adams

    • Absolute and Relative value of a reward influences motivation

    • People compare themselves to referents (4 types)

    • People want to feel fairly treated


    Four types of referents

    Four Types of Referents

    • 3.Other - Inside:

      • Comparison to others’ experiences in the organization

    • 4.Other - Outside:

      • Comparison to others’ experiences outside the organization

    • Self - Inside:

      Comparison to own previous experiences within the organization

      2.Self - Outside:

      Comparison to own previous experiences outside the organization


    Factors influencing comparisons

    Factors Influencing Comparisons

    • Gender

    • Length of service

    • Level of organization

    • Professional experience & training


    Implications of equity theory

    Implications of Equity Theory

    • Rewards should be perceived as fair in both absolute and relative terms

    • Reward process is as important as reward itself

      • understood by team

      • viewed as fair

      • consistently administered


    Expectancy theory

    Expectancy Theory

    • Developed by Victor Vroom

    • Well-Researched Theory

    • Motivation depends on three expectancies

      • Perceived ability to do a job

      • Perceived likelihood of being rewarded

      • Perceived attractiveness of the reward


    Motivation is situation specific

    Motivation Is Situation Specific

    Motivation =

    Perceived

    Ability

    to do

    a Jobor Task

    Perceived

    Likelihood

    of

    Being

    Rewarded

    Perceived

    Value

    of

    Reward

    x

    x


    Implications of expectancy theory

    Implications of Expectancy Theory

    • Motivation is influenced by individual perceptions

      • I cando the job

      • I willbe rewarded

      • I wantthe reward

  • The project manager must understand team members and stakeholders and deal with them as individuals as much as possible


  • Thought problem2

    Thought Problem

    New Assignment

    • High Value Reward

    • Low Likelihood

    • Moderate Ability


    Solution to thought problem

    Solution to Thought Problem


    Multiple sources of rewards

    Multiple Sources of Rewards

    1. The Parent Organization

    2. Functional Departments

    3. Project

    Manager

    5. Leadership

    (Informal)

    4. Formal Rewards

    Team

    Member

    6. P r o j e c t

    T e a m

    7. Job or

    Task


    Integrating model of motivation based on robbins 1998

    Integrating Model of MotivationBased on Robbins (1998)

    1

    5

    6

    4

    8

    Opportunity

    JobDesign

    AppraisalSystem

    Ability

    EquityComparison

    2

    7

    3

    10

    Organizational

    Rewards

    PersonalGoals

    Individual

    Effort

    IndividualPerformance

    7

    9

    7

    Expectancies

    Perceptions

    of Reward

    PersonalNeeds

    Intrinsic

    Extrinsic

    Reinforcement(Rewards)

    2

    Personal Goals


    Sample questions

    Sample Questions

    1. What are an individual’s personal goals and objectives?

    2. What opportunities (for performance) can I offer a person?

    3. Does the person have the knowledge/skills necessary to perform, or is training needed?

    4. Does a personbelievehe or she can perform (regardless of his or her competence)?

    5. Is the performance evaluation objective? Is it perceived as objective?


    Sample questions continued

    Sample Questions (continued)

    6. Am I rewarding desired behaviors and not undesired behaviors?

    7. Are the rewards at my disposal perceived asdesirable by the individual?

    8. Am I perceived as giving rewards fairly and for performance?

    9. Do the rewards satisfy the individual’s personal goals, objectives, needs, and so forth?


    Caution

    CAUTION!

    • Research has a United States orientation

    • Research focuses on individual motivation

    • Rewards can vary from culture to culture

    • Definitions of equity are culturally dependent

    • Team motivation is also important


    Do s and don ts

    Do’s and Don’ts

    • Performance depends on more than motivation

      • selection, training, and job design are also important(Robbins)

    • Team members must expect valued rewards will result from high performance

      (Expectancy Theory and Reinforcement Theory)

    • Both extrinsic (pay) and intrinsic (achievement) rewards may reinforce desired behavior

      (Reinforcement Theory)


    Do s and don ts continued

    Do’s and Don’ts (continued)

    • Praise and recognition are powerful rewards and should be contingent on the behavior

      (Hierarchy and Reinforcement Theory)

    • Try to structure roles and rewards to meet individual needs

      (Reinforcement Theory)

    • Specific, challenging goals that are accepted by the team member are motivating, especially when members are able to provide themselves with internal feedback

      (Goals, Expectancy Theory, and Reinforcement Theory)


    Do s and don ts continued1

    Do’s and Don’ts (continued)

    • The 12-Step planning process provides participation in goal setting

      (Hierarchy, Goals, and Reinforcement Theory)

    • Try to have a fair and open reward process

      (Equity Theory, Reinforcement Theory, and Expectancy

      Theory)

    • Avoid rewarding inappropriate behaviors. Reward desired ones and don’t extinguish desired behaviors

      (Reinforcement Theory and Expectancy Theory)


    Do s and don ts continued2

    Do’s and Don’ts (continued)

    • Remember that people are different and reinforcements are idiosyncratic!

      • (Hierarchy and Reinforcement)

    • Parties for team members when the team meets key milestones serve several functions

      • (Hierarchy, Equity, Goals, Reinforcement, and Expectancy)


    Conclusions

    Conclusions

    • Theories are useful tools for managers for developing and maintaining commitment and for rewarding performance

    • Motivation = intent + energy

    • Performance = job execution

    • Five theories were summarized

      • Hierarchy of Needs

      • Goal Setting

      • Reinforcement

      • Equity

      • Expectancy

  • The project manager must motivate individuals and the group


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