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Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact. ANSC 3. Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet. WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING? AS.02.03: Identify technological advances in animal agriscience . AS.03: Identify breeds of economically important animal species.

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Industrial animals and environmental impact

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

ANSC 3


Unit map follow along in your packet

Unit Map: Follow Along in your packet

WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING?

AS.02.03: Identify technological advances in animal agriscience.

AS.03: Identify breeds of economically important animal species.

AS.03.02: Recognize breed improvements and industry standards.


Know understand do

Know Understand Do!

Know

Definition of industrial animal

Use of industrial animals

Environmental impacts of intensive farming

Do

  • Outline general care of industrial animals

  • Describe slaughter regulations

  • Design regulatory processes for industrial farms incorporating environmental protection

Understand

  • Types of industrial animals

  • Processing procedures and regulations

  • Relationships between environment and farming processes


Key learning industrial farming and the environmental impact

Key Learning: Industrial Farming and the Environmental Impact

Unit EQ: How can consumers and farmers practice environmental stewardship?

Concept : Industrial Animals

Lesson EQ:

How are industrial animals defined?

Vocab

Industrial Animal

Concept : Environmental Impacts

Lesson EQ:

What impact does industrial farming have on the planet?

Vocab

Pollution, CAFO

Concept : Products and Processing

Lesson EQ:

What role do industrial animals play in society?

Vocab

HACCP, OSHA


Contents

Contents

1. Intro to Industrial Animals

1. 1 Cattle (Beef and Dairy)

1. 2 Swine

1. 3 Poultry

2. Products and Processing

2.1Processing and Safety

2.2 Products and Packaging

2.3 Safety at home , Avoiding health risks

3. Environmental Impact

3.1 Cause 3.2 Effect 3.3 What’s being done?


Industrial animals and environmental impact1

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

1. Intro to Industrial Animals

1. 1 Cattle (Beef and Dairy)


Warm up

Warm Up

  • Which is Which?


Industrial animal defined

Industrial Animal Defined

  • Any animal produced on a mass scale used for food, or food products.

  • Typically raised on a farm setting

    • Examples:

      • Cattle

      • Swine

      • Poultry


Cattle

Cattle

BEEF

DAIRY

Natural bi products used to make food for human consumption

Normally go into hamburger meat once finished producing

  • Reared for their meat

  • Bi-products and solid muscle cuts utilized


Beef cattle breeds

Beef Cattle Breeds

  • Typical Beef Cattle Breeds

    • Black Angus

    • Charolais

    • Hereford

    • Limousin

    • Simmental


Beef cattle basic requirements

Beef Cattle Basic Requirements

  • Care:

    • Vaccines and antibiotics

    • Castration and Spaying (Females)

      • Determines meat quality and grade

    • A.I. and selective breeding

    • Polling / Dehorning

      • Safety of handlers and animal

  • Feed (depends on stage of life)

    • Forages

    • Pasture

    • Concentrated High Protein Grains

  • Housing

    • Fields, walk in stalls, feed lots


Beef cattle common diseases

Beef Cattle Common Diseases

  • EBA

  • Trichomonosis

  • Pink eye


Major areas of production in us

Major Areas of Production in US


Activity break

Activity Break

  • Beef Cattle Packet with Questions

  • Please work in GROUPS to answer the questions on the attached worksheet

  • EACH GROUP MEMBER must produce their own work and turn it into the bin once finished.


Dairy cattle common breeds

DAIRY Cattle Common Breeds

  • Holstien

  • Guernsey

  • Brown Swiss

  • Jersey

  • Ayrshire


Dairy cattle care requirements

Dairy Cattle Care Requirements

  • Care:

    • Vaccines and antibiotics

    • A.I. and selective breeding

    • Polling / Dehorning

      • Safety of handlers and animal

  • Feed (depends on stage of life)

    • Forages

    • Pasture

    • Concentrated High Protein Grains

  • Housing

    • Fields, walk in stalls


Dairy cattle common diseases

Dairy Cattle Common Diseases

  • Dystocia

    • Difficulty calving

  • Prolapsed Uterus

    • Cow has pushed uterus outside body- “inside out”

  • Milk Fever

    • Hypocalcemia- low calcium in blood


Top dairy production states

Top Dairy Production States


Review activity dairy vs beef

Review Activity Dairy vs. Beef

  • Make a Ven Diagram

  • Compare and Contrast

    • Care aspects

    • Health problems

    • Top producing states

  • Answer the following:

    • Why are care aspects the same, but health concerns different?

    • What geographical features or placement of the dairy states makes them “Good” for dairy but not for Beef? And Vice Versa? Why is a beef state not a dairy state?


Industrial animals and environmental impact2

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

1. Intro to Industrial Animals

1. 2 Swine


Swine breeds

Swine Breeds

Dark Breeds

White Breeds

used for their reproductive abilities such as mothering ability, litter size, and milking ability.

  • used for their production abilities such as meatiness, leanness, durability, growth rate, and feed efficiency.


Top breeds

Top Breeds

Dark Breeds

White Breeds

Chester White

Landrace

Yorkshire

  • Berkshire

  • Duroc

  • Hampshire

  • Poland China

  • Spot


Swine care requirements

Swine Care Requirements

  • Care

    • Pigs over heat easily

    • Vaccines, Dewormed, antibiotics

  • Feed

    • Concentrated grain

    • “Slop” on home farms

  • Housing

    • Wallows for cooling

    • Must be able to lie down

    • Farrowing crates


Common swine diseases

Common Swine Diseases

  • Atrophic Rhinitis

    • Caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica, Destroys the nasal turbinates, Significantly affects growth rate and feed efficiency

  • E. Coli scours

    • Highly contagious disease, Mortality may be high, effect piglets

  • Leptospirosis

    • Causes both arthritis and pneumonia in growing-finishing pigs , Prevented by vaccination every 6 months


Hog farm density in us

Hog Farm Density in US


Activity break1

Activity Break

  • Farrowing Crate Reading Parts one and two

    • Please answer the questions about Farrowing Crates

  • Farrowing Crate research part three

    • In groups, please research the questions on the second half of your paper.


Review activity

Review Activity

  • Vocab!

    • Farrowing, Crate, Nest Box, Sow, Piglet, bedding, Overheat, Manure, Floor, Suckle

  • Make a Web!

  • Use each vocabulary word

  • Make connections between words with lines

  • On the lines, write a one sentence explanation of the relationship


Industrial animals and environmental impact3

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

1. Intro to Industrial Animals

1. 3 Poultry


Warm up1

Warm Up

  • How does this Become this?


Top poultry breeds

Top Poultry Breeds

  • Broiler: White Plymouth Rock

  • Rhode Island Red: Dual Purpose

  • Single Comb White Leghorn: Table Egg Laying

  • Barred Plymouth Rock: Meat

  • Aracuana: Dual Purpose


Common care practices poultry

Common Care Practices Poultry

  • Care

    • Vaccinations

    • Debeaking

    • Spur Trimming and Wing Clipping

  • Food

    • Grain based (corn and soybean)

    • High Energy

  • Housing

    • Temperature Controlled

    • Automated

    • Square foot per chicken


Common poultry diseases

Common Poultry Diseases

  • Newcastle’s Disaease

    • Vaccinated in ovo

  • Merek’s Disease

    • Vaccinated in ovo

  • Avian Influenza

  • Infectious Bronchitis

    • Vaccinated via eye drops and body sprays

  • Salmonella

    • Competitive exclusion (remember Dr. X!?)


Top poultry production states

Top Poultry Production States


Activity break2

Activity Break

  • CDC Overview Article with Questions

  • Research the latest Avian Influenza Outbreak

    • Who was effected? Did anyone die? How many?? Where did this happen? Where did contact occur? Why? How?

  • Extension

    • Why is this a concern? What seems to be the fear?


Bring it all together

Bring it all together

  • Grab a US map

  • Make a key for each animal discussed and items below

    • Beef: orange

    • Dairy: purple

    • Poultry: yellow

    • Swine: red

  • Color their production states

  • Mountain Range Rivers/Water Deltas


Map of us waterways

Map of US Waterways


On the back of your map

On the BACK of your Map

  • Fill in the blanks

  • ________________ are mass produced in the state of ______________. The __________ waterway runs through this state and out to the ____________ ocean.

  • Make a 5 sentence prediction about what possible threats to animals (being produced), humans, and the environment are present along the waterway mentioned above. Include the state it is in, any states it passes through on the way to the ocean, and the area where it empties into the ocean.


Industrial animals and environmental impact4

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

2. Products and Processing

2. 1 Processing Procedures


Warm up2

Warm Up

  • What stages go into making this?


Slaughter processes

Slaughter Processes

  • Three Stages:

    • Preslaughter handling, stunning, slaughter

  • Humane Slaughter Act: required throughout processing


Preslaughter handling

Preslaughter Handling

  • Major Concern

    • Especially in pork

  • Increased stress releases hormones and changes meat quality

  • Stress can be reduced by:

    • Not mixing groups of animals

    • Adequate ventilation

    • No overcrowding

    • No food 24-48 hours prior. Only water !


Stunning

Stunning

  • Restrained in a chute single file

  • Three methods

    • Electrical

      • Electricity passes through the brain

    • Mechanical

      • Pistol

    • Gasing

      • Carbon Dioxide


Slaughter

Slaughter

  • Normally suspended by hind leg

  • Bled out (exsanguination)

    • Sever carotid artery and jugular vein.

  • Process varies by species


Slaughter cattle

Slaughter: Cattle

  • Stunned mechanically

  • Feet removed

  • Hung by Achilles' tendon

  • Skinned mechanically

    • Salted and tanned for later use for leather

  • Head removed at the atlas joint

  • Evisceration (removal of insides)

    • kidney, pelvic, and heart fat left in grading.

  • Cold storage for 24 hours


Slaughter swine

Slaughter: Swine

  • Stunned electrically or by gas

  • Hung by back legs

  • Exsanguination

  • Skin left on!

    • Scalding tank (145 degrees) loosens scurf (hair etc)

    • Dehairing machine

  • Head removed

  • Evisceration

    • Intestines saved for natural casing


Slaughter poultry

Slaughter Poultry


Meat inspection

Meat Inspection

  • Antemortem (BEFORE)

    • IDs animals not fit for human consumption

    • 4D animals

      • Down, Disabled, Diseased, Dead

      • Removed and labeled condemned

      • “Suspect” animals removed

  • Postmortem (AFTER)

    • head, viscera, and carcasses

    • IDs whole carcasses, individual parts, or organs not safe for human consumption.


Inspection during processing

Inspection During Processing

  • Previously inspected meat is used in the preparation of processed meat products

  • Ingredients are added to processed meats.

  • Reinspection during processing assures safe ingredients are used in the manufacture of processed meat products (e.g., sausage and ham).


Industrial animals and environmental impact

HSUS

  • Humane Society of the United States

  • Established in 1954, The HSUS seeks a humane and sustainable world for all animals—a world that will also benefit people.

  • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kok4ADtRM8g


Think about it further

Think about it further

  • Write a letter to a state official explaining the need for the HSUS. Cite an investigation and explain why the investigation was needed (in context of human safe food) Finally, write about why the government should be more supportive of the HSUS. What agency should support them and why?

    • You will need to research the various gov’t agencies (FBI, USDA, FDA, CDC) and include their missions as supportive evidence

      • Why do we need the HSUS?

      • DO we even need them?

      • Where should their reach end?

      • What should they be responsible for?

      • Who should help them ? (FBI? FDA? USDA?)

      • Why do you think these agencies are remaining partially separated from the HSUS?


Activity break3

Activity Break

  • Design a flow chart, cartoon, or other type of manual explaining the slaughtering process in either cattle, swine, or poultry


Finished

Finished?

  • Chapter book work

  • Blue Agriscience book Chapter 20

    • Define your vocabulary

    • Perform the discussion questions only please.


Industrial animals and environmental impact5

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

2. Products and Processing

2. 1 Products, Sanitation, and Packaging


Which takes more steps

Which takes more steps?


Beef processing

Beef Processing

  • Whole sale cuts: Primal cuts

    • chuck, loin, rib and round

  • Retail cuts: what you buy at the store

    • most expensive usually come from the loin area

    • chops and steaks such as the T Bone

  • Trimming

    • are made into sausage or ground meat


Cuts of meat

Cuts of meat


Beef processing grading

Beef Processing: Grading

  • Meat in freezer is graded according to USDA standards

    • Performed by AMS (Ag Marketing Service)

    • federal meat grading was established in 1925

  • Grades (2 types): certifies class, quality and condition with uniform standards

    • are determined by the age of the animal amount of fat intermingled with the muscle

    • Quality: prediction of the eating quality (palatability)

    • Yield: indicate expected yield of edible meat


Grade levels

Grade Levels

Quality Grade Levels

Yield Grade Levels

estimate of the percentage of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts that come from the major lean primal cuts

1 over 52.3 % lean primal cuts

2 50 - 52.3%

3 47.7-50.0

4 45.4-47.7%

5 less than 45.4%

  • prime

  • choice

  • select

  • standard

  • commercial

  • utility

  • cutter

  • canner


Grading continued

Grading Continued…

Age

Fat

Fat= Marbling

specks of white in meat

More specks= higher grade

Prime=highest level of marbling

Skinny animals are cheaper to grow therefore the meat is cheaper than heavier animals

  • maturity of the cartilage and bones

    • Cartilage -> bone

  • Inspecting rib cage and vertebrae for the degree of bone and cartilage hardening - ossification

  • Animals older than about 42 months cannot receive the highest two grades

    • Young=Tender


Safety during processing

Safety During Processing

  • Major Players

    • USDA : helps set standards

    • HACCP processes

      • A food safety and self-inspection system that highlights potentially hazardous foods and how they are handled in the food service environment.


Let s take a look

Let’s Take A Look

  • Analyzing the a Beef HACCP Plan

    • HACCP 13 pages 29-35

    • Read/Write/Trade

  • Fill in your graphic organizer

  • Answer the summary questions rally robin with a partner


Activity graphic organizer and q s

Activity Graphic Organizer and Q’s

  • Answer the following after completing your graphic organizer for Beef, Swine, Poultry

    • What is the most hazardous processing point for all 3 animals?

    • What is the most common threat? What affect does this have on Human health? Explain

    • What is the most common prevention (safety) method and how does it work? Explain


Watch a river of waste

WATCH A RIVER OF WASTE

  • TAKE GOOD NOTES!!!


River of waste video summary essay

River of Waste Video Summary Essay

  • One: Introduction

    • Video based general summary, include definition of CAFO and why they are used

  • Two: Specifics

    • Discuss a specific geographical area in the US that is having a problem. Discuss the problem, its implication on human and environmental health and the source of the problem

  • Three: Discuss America’s Report Card

    • What were the grading areas, What are the sources of the problems

  • Four: What are other countries doing?

    • List 3 specific ideas discussed in the video that other countries are implementing to prevent the problems faced in the US

  • Five: Conclusion

    • Reflect about the video and your thoughts about the US, other countries, and living in Delaware (include information about animal production in Delaware and possible health risks

  • Works Cited Page: APA Style 5 Sources 2 Scholarly (use google scholar to search)


Beef processing video

Beef Processing Video

  • 40 mins

  • Discussion to follow


Industrial animals and environmental impact6

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

2. Products and Processing

2. 1 Products, Sanitation, and Packaging


Haccp plans swine and poultry

HACCP Plans Swine and Poultry

  • Design a foldable/ graphic organizer that outlines the following:

    • Where in the slaughter process hazards occur?

    • What type of hazard is present

    • What is the hazard

    • How is it monitored/ prevented/ controlled?


Industrial animals and environmental impact7

Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

2. Products and Processing

2.2 Products and Packaging


Flip ables

FLIP ABLES!

  • Grab 2 copies of each worksheet.

  • Cut out the “cuts of meat” on one worksheet. Leave the other one solid.

  • Put the CUT paper on top of the regular paper

    • On the FLIPS include what cuts of meat come from that area on the animal

    • Beef

    • Swine

    • Poultry


Cuts of beef 15 minutes

Cuts of beef (15 minutes)


Cuts of pork swine 15 mins

Cuts of Pork (Swine) (15 mins)


Cuts of poultry 15 mins

Cuts of Poultry (15 mins)


Packaging in the meat dept

Packaging in the Meat Dept

Fresh: uncured, uncooked, not frozen

a. distribution

  • good oxygen barrier

  • good water barrier

  • sealable

  • thermoforms (heat shrink) to reduce purge and adjust to size

  • puncture, tear resistant

  • EVA/PVDC/EVA – typical

  • b. retail

    • highly oxygen permeable…or impermeable with CO

  • good water barrier

  • sealable

  • clear, glossy

  • tamper, handling resistant

  • PVC typical


  • Packaging contin

    Packaging Contin…

    • 2. fresh, cooked-packaged after cooked, slicing

      • good barrier for both oxygen and water --- some may include aluminum foil and may include oxygen absorbers --- to prevent WOF and rancid flavors

      • nylon/PVDC/nylon/EVA typical

        “Cook-in” films

        • good barrier as above

        • adhesion properties for product surface to prevent cook purge

        • Surlyn ionomers typical


    Packaging contin1

    Packaging Contin…

    • 3. fresh, frozen (i.e. poultry)

      • good oxygen barrier, medium water barrier at freezer temperature

      • shrinkable (prevent frost-recrystallization)

      • PE is typical

    • 4. cured, cooked

      • good barrier to oxygen and water

      • sealable and resealable

      • thermoformable

      • puncture, tear, tamper resistant

      • clear, glossy

      • nylon/PVDC/PE typical


    What are the trends

    What are the trends?

    • Review packaging methods discussion


    Industrial animals and environmental impact8

    Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

    2. Products and Processing

    2.3 Safety at Home, Avoiding Health Risks


    Dr x modules recap

    Dr. X Modules Recap

    • After viewing the Dr. X Video in its entirety, please answer the following;

      • What is a pathogen and why are they so dangerous?

      • Where do most “problems” arise within the home?

      • Give 4 ways to help prevent the spread of disease to humans from animal products

      • Explain how the nature of Bacteria / Virus help us to “beat” them. Now contrast how the same characteristic can cause us to fail leading to epidemic illness


    Industrial animals and environmental impact9

    Industrial Animals and Environmental Impact

    3. Environmental Impact

    Stage One: Introduction to the Problem


    Step one intro and prologue

    Step One : Intro and Prologue

    • Break into 6 groups of 3

    • Half of groups take a prologue and half of groups take an introduction

    • EACH GROUP OF 3 ANSWER THE FOLLOWING

      • What is the book about?

      • Who are the main characters?

      • What are the problems discussed?

      • How are the main characters connected to the problems?

      • Where are the problems occurring?

      • Why are the problems so serious?

      • For each problem predict a solution that might be proposed later in the reading.


    Group readings

    Group Readings

    • Get into 3 groups

      • Each will receive a reading excerpt from Animal Factory

        • (grab a book for extra reading supplies from the shelf)

      • Please read together by paragraphs then switch reading ROUND ROBIN

        • WHILE YOU READ be prepared to answer the following to share with the class

          • What is your animal? Where does this story take place? Who are the main characters and what role are they playing your story? Who seems to be the “bad guy” or the problem starter? What is the main PROBLEM? Is there any hints about what they must do to change their situation?


    Where is the problem

    Where is the Problem?

    • After reading, please use the internet or other sources as a group to answer the following

      • Where is the “problem”

      • What geographical features make this a more serious issue?

      • What is the impact the problem is having on the environment?

      • Is this still (currently) an issue in that area?


    Further research

    Further Research

    • Using the internet as a group find the following:

      • What group is utilized to help solve the issue from your reading?

        • Provide mission statement / purpose and be ready to show us their website in class

      • Why do they feel they needed to organize to help solve the issue?

      • What was a major break through for your organization concerning combating the problem from your reading?

      • What is the current status, or current project your organization is working on?


    Unit review

    Unit Review

    • HACCP, CAFO, USDA, FDA, EPA

    • What are top producing states for beef, swine, and poultry?

    • What are common care practices for ALL industrial animals?

    • List the stages of processing for cattle, swine, poultry

    • List 3 products made from each animal discussed in class

    • What are health hazards concerning food AT HOME? How do we combat these in our homes?

    • Generally explain the categories of products made and how they are packaged

    • Explain the 3 issues discussed in Animal Factory

      • Where were they? What animals? What was the problems? Why were these “problems”?


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