TibetIII (2003-)
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TibetIII (2003-). 观测站 西藏羊八井, 海拔4300m(大气深度606g/cm 2 ) 现有阵列: 50,400 m 2 闪烁体探测器 :0.5 m 2 x 789个 其中: 快时间光电倍增管 761个,动态范围:0-15个粒子,时间分辨0.8ns 大动态光电倍增管 277个,动态范围:15-500个粒子 Energy resolution: 10 TeV ~+70%-40% 100 TeV ~+40%-30% Angular resolution : 10TeV:0.5 o

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TibetIII (2003-)

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Tibetiii 2003

TibetIII (2003-)

观测站

西藏羊八井, 海拔4300m(大气深度606g/cm2)

现有阵列:50,400 m2

闪烁体探测器:0.5 m2 x 789个

其中: 快时间光电倍增管

761个,动态范围:0-15个粒子,时间分辨0.8ns

大动态光电倍增管

277个,动态范围:15-500个粒子

Energy resolution:10 TeV ~+70%-40%

100 TeV ~+40%-30%

Angular resolution: 10TeV:0.5o

100TeV:0.2o


Tibetiii 2003

TibetIII (2003-)

观测站

西藏羊八井, 海拔4300m(大气深度606g/cm2)

现有阵列:50,400 m2

闪烁体探测器:0.5 m2 x 789个

其中: 快时间光电倍增管

761个,动态范围:0-15个粒子,时间分辨0.8ns

大动态光电倍增管

277个,动态范围:15-500个粒子

Energy resolution:10 TeV ~+70%-40%

100 TeV ~+40%-30%

Angular resolution: 10TeV:0.5o

100TeV:0.2o

优势:

高海拔

全天候,

宽视场

缺点:

不能有效区分宇宙线强子与电磁成分


Tev crab mrk421 mrk501

TeV能区伽马点源的观测:Crab,Mrk421,Mrk501

Crab(6.3σ)

Mrk501,1997

MrK421高态爆发,2000&2001 (6.9σ)


All sky significance map

All Sky Significance map

Solid line--all sky;

Dashed line-gaus fit;

Dotted line-without Mrk421 and Crab;

Dot-dashed line-without Mrk421,Crab and MGRO J2019+37;

MGRO J2019+37

—Smooth radius is optimal angular resolution(0.99 °) thinking about the extension 0.32 ° of MGRO J2019+37

Mrk421

Crab

HEGRA J2032+4130

MGRO J2031+41

MILAGRO C1


Tibetiii 2003

中日数据间接寻找暗物质湮灭信号

湮灭截面

暗物质质量


Tibetiii 2003

中日数据间接寻找暗物质湮灭信号

湮灭截面

灵敏度不够!

暗物质质量


Preliminary results on e emission at 100tev without having muon detector

Preliminary results on γ/e emission at 100TeV without having MUON detector

(Zhaoyang Feng et al, ICRC2009)

Upper:Hints of 100TeV γ/e emission?

Tibet-MUON will give an answer, which is due to contribute to origin problem of CRs.

Middle : EAS-1000 prototype

array from 100TeV to 10 PeV.

Lower: γ ray observation

by famous satelite

experiment EGRET

at GeV energy.


Preliminary results on e emission at 100tev without having muon detector1

Preliminary results on γ/e emission at 100TeV without having MUON detector

(Zhaoyang Feng et al, ICRC2009)

Upper:Hints of 100TeV γ/e emission?

Tibet-MUON will give answer and making important contribution to CRs research.

灵敏度不够!

Middle : EAS-1000 prototype

array from 100TeV to 10 PeV.

Lower: γ ray observation

by famous satelite

experiment EGRET

at GeV energy.


Tibetiii 2003

排除CR本底的两种办法:横向分布和μ子数

100TeV伽马射线簇射在ybj高度

100TeV质子簇射在ybj高度

分辨二:

缪子数差别

分辨一:

横向分布差别


Tibet md 10 000m 2 underground muon detector 10 100tev

Tibet MD:10,000m2 underground Muon Detector 10-100TeV能区世界上最灵敏的探测器

MD array

--- 12 x 16 =192 muon detectors (~10,000 m2)

--- 2.5m underground (~515g/cm2, ~19X0)

Each muon detector

--- Water pool, made of concrete

--- 7.2m x7.2m x 1.5m depth

--- White waterproof surface

--- 20” inch PMT x 2 (HAMAMATSU R3600)


Tibet md 10 000m 2 underground muon detector 10 100tev1

Tibet MD:10,000m2 underground Muon Detector 10-100TeV能区世界上最灵敏的探测器

MD array

--- 12 x 16 =192 muon detectors (~10,000 m2)

--- 2.5m underground (~515g/cm2, ~19X0)

Each muon detector

--- Water pool, made of concrete

--- 7.2m x7.2m x 1.5m depth

--- White waterproof surface

--- 20” inch PMT x 2 (HAMAMATSU R3600)


Inside view of md prototype

Inside view of MD prototype


Tibetiii 2003

8

8

8

Sr :Sum of particle density by all scintillation det.

Shower Size(a measure of energy)

SNPE :Sum of photoelectrons by all muon det.

the number of muons in air showers

Number of muons vs. Shower Size

(Simulation)

Survival Efficiency

(Simulation)

Eg: 1.9 10 100 1000 TeV


Tibetiii 2003

5s or 10 ev. sensitivity to Point-like Gamma-ray Source

10-100TeV能区世界上最灵敏的探测器

Background free

10 gamma-ray events

sensitivity


Tibetiii 2003

宇宙线轻子起源与强子起源,多波段联合观察

A&A,464(2007)235-243

SNR RXJ1713.7-3946

  • 已有的多波段观测 + 100TeVγ射线观测有助于确定宇宙线强子源

  • 极大地增强了我们对宇宙线强子源的认识,有望回答宇宙线起源的问题

强子模型


Indirect detection of dm at 10tev region

Indirect Detection of DM at 10TeV region

  • In a model independent way,

  • χχ-> e+ e- , Natural Scale: <σv> = 3*10-26cm-3s-1

  • Einasto distribution, only considering the main halo

  • Considering transportation(GALPROP)

FOV of YBJ

90o

180o

-180o

-90o


Background and signal

Background and signal


Simulation study and data selection

  • Full simulation of Tibet III and MD for CRs and electron

  • Data selection to get maximum S/B ratio:

  • Theta<25o(secTheta<1.1)

  • R<50m

  • [email protected]

  • Energy Resolution:-30%-+50%

  • Angular Resolution: 0. 5o

Simulation study and data selection


Simulation study and data selection1

  • Full simulation of Tibet III and MD for CRs and electron

  • Data selection to get maximum S/B ratio:

  • Theta<25o(secTheta<1.1)

  • R<50m

  • [email protected]

  • Energy Resolution:-30%-+50%

  • Angular Resolution: 0. 5o

Simulation study and data selection


Simulation study and data selection2

  • Full simulation of Tibet III and MD for CRs and electron

  • Data selection to get maximum S/B ratio:

  • Theta<25o(secTheta<1.1)

  • R<50m

  • [email protected]

  • Energy Resolution:-30%-+50%

  • Angular Resolution: 0. 5o

Simulation study and data selection


Event number by 1yr operation

Event number by 1yr operation

100TeV

10TeV


Sensitivity to diffuse electron

Sensitivity to diffuse electron


Sensitivity for diffuse electron vs electron fluxes from dm annihilation

暗物质间接探测灵敏度:Sensitivity for diffuse electronvs electron fluxes from DM annihilation


E e pair production between cr s and radiation bkg knee

e+e- pair production between CR s and radiation BKG => knee

ApJ 700:L170–L173, 2009 August 1; (astro-ph/0901.1520)


Electron positron excesses

=> electron, positron excesses

ApJ 700:L170–L173, 2009 August 1; (astro-ph/0901.1520)


Pulsar production of e e

Pulsar Production of e+e-

arXiv:0812.4457


Potential power in detecting the e lectron s from nearby pulsar

Potential power in detecting the electrons from nearby pulsar


Tibetiii 2003

Summary

  • Tibet ASγ Experiment has been successfully operated

    since 1989 and fruitful results have been obtained.

  • 5 out of 12 MUON detectorsare under constructionin 2010.

    TibetIII-MD is expected to resume data taking in 2011. Sensitivity

    of ASγ experiment for observing theγ ray point source will be

    Improved by about a factor of 10 at several tens of TeV.

  • e+ e- from DM annihilation could be detected in 10TeV

    region by TibetIII+MD, If it follows the DM models used to

    explain the ATIC and PAMELA excess.

  • Tibet III-MD will be sensitive in testing the models related to the

    astrophysics origin of e+/e- excesses


Tibetiii 2003

Pulsar Production of e+e-

Advances in Space Research,Volume 27, Issue 4,2001, 653-658


Survival efficiency

Survival efficiency


Pollution of crs and diffuse

Pollution of CRs and diffuse γ

  • Systematic error of cosmic rays survival efficiency

    ----Calibrated by Crab and Moon Shadow

  • Galactic and extra-Galactic diffuse γ rays at 10TeV region

    ----Detailed consideration, other experiments, theoretic calculation


Tibetiii 2003

蟹状星云一年观测预期事例数

ECR:4.0 5.0 7.0 11.1 19 39 80 184 348 900 TeV

Eγ: 1.9 2.4 3.5 5.6 9.8 20 39 89 210 550 TeV


Sensitivity to dm electron

Sensitivity to DM electron


Constrain to e e cross section

Constrain to e+e- cross section

TibetIII+MD(5pool)+Einasto


P he by tibet hybrid experiment phys lett b 632 58 2006

P, He byTibet hybrid Experiment (Phys. Lett. B, 632, 58 (2006))

Primary Proton spectrum

Primary Helium spectrum

(All - (P+He)) /All

1) Our results shows that the main component responsible for the knee structure of the all particle spectrum is heavier than helium nuclei.

2) The absolute fluxes of protons and helium nuclei are derived within 30% systematic errors depending on the hadronic interaction models.


Gev tev

GeV-TeV伽马射线源观测

Fermi卫星发射后前11个月观测到的1451个点源(100MeV-100GeV)

106个TeV point Source

(61 gal + 45 extra-gal, up to 2010/11/11)


Tibetiii 2003

宇宙线起源之谜

  • 主要是原子核:P,He,…, Fe,…

  • 也有:,e±

  • 还有:γ,ν

  • 非热能谱

    dN/dE∝E-α

  • 各向同性的分布

    一些能区有微弱各向异性

流强

1030

河外?

“膝”区(4PeV)

以下是河内起源?

1912-, Hess,但

  • 哪里产生?

  • 如何加速?

1011

能量


Cr ph oton cr e e

CR+photon->CR+(e+e-)

CR knee has a energy of 4PeV, and is related mainly withproton and Helium.

Many observation suggests that the major component is He.

4PeV energy to He corresponds to a Lorentz factor of 106, just the right value for (e+e-) pair production when interacting with 5000Ko(~1eV)background photon and can produce e+/e- at ~500GeV!

The energy flow of ATIC excess electron is10-4GeV/cm2sSr, between 80GeV- 900GeV, as same as the energy loss of CRs assuming that the cosmic rays change their spectrum indices from -2.7 to -3.1 above ~ PeV;


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