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Origin of the Structure of the Kuiper Belt During a Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”). Levison, H., Morbidelli, A., VanLaerhoven, C., Gomes, R., & Tsiganis, K. Icarus, Accepted. Nathan Kaib 5/16/08. Outline. Description of Kuiper Belt

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Origin of the Structure of the Kuiper Belt During a Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

Levison, H., Morbidelli, A., VanLaerhoven, C., Gomes, R., & Tsiganis, K.

Icarus, Accepted

Nathan Kaib

5/16/08

outline
Outline
  • Description of Kuiper Belt
  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model
  • Simulation Results
  • Conclusions
outline1
Outline
  • Description of Kuiper Belt
  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model
  • Simulation Results
  • Conclusions
slide4

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Missing Mass: KB only contains 0.01 – 0.1 Earth masses
  • Need 2-3 orders of magnitude more mass to accrete 100-1000 km bodies
properties of the kuiper belt
Properties of the Kuiper Belt
  • 10 – 50% of objects found in resonances with Neptune
  • Inclinations extend up to ~40o
slide6

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Contains large population of excited orbits that do not pass near planets now
    • - Scattered Disk
slide7

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Contains double peaked inclination distribution:
    • “Hot” population
    • “Cold” population

Hot

Cold

slide8

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Hot and Cold populations have different properties

Hot

Bluer, Larger

Redder, Smaller

Cold

slide9

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Cold, low e population has sharp cutoff at 1:2 resonance with Neptune
outline2
Outline
  • Description of Kuiper Belt
  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model
  • Simulation Results
  • Conclusions
outer planet migration
Outer Planet Migration

N

  • Nep, Ura, and Sat much more likely to scatter bodies in than eject them
  • Jupiter’s energy kicks are powerful enough to eject most bodies

J

U

S

outer planet migration1
Outer Planet Migration

Neptune, Uranus, and Saturn migrate outwards and Jupiter moves in to conserve angular momentum

current planet configuration
Current Planet Configuration

1:2 MMR

Saturn currently is ~1.3 AU beyond the 1:2 MMR with Jupiter

the nice model
The Nice Model

1:2 MMR

~35 AU

If there were 10’s of Earth masses of material beyond Neptune originally, then Saturn must have crossed the 1:2 MMR with Jupiter

slide16

Saturn crossing 1:2 MMR causes orbits of U and N to become chaotic

  • Dynamical friction due to scattering damps re-circurlarizes orbits
nice model can explain
Nice Model Can Explain…
  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago
  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans
  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt
  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets
  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets
nice model can explain1
Nice Model Can Explain…
  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago
  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans
  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt
  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets
  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets
nice model can explain2
Nice Model Can Explain…
  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago
  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans
  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt
  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets
  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets
nice model can explain3
Nice Model Can Explain…
  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago
  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans
  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt
  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets
  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets
nice model can explain4
Nice Model Can Explain…
  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago
  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans
  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt
  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets
  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets
outline3
Outline
  • Description of Kuiper Belt
  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model
  • Simulation Results
  • Conclusions
simulations
Simulations
  • Start planets at last scattering between Uranus and Neptune
  • Surround Neptune’s orbit with torus of 60,000 test particles extending to 34 AU
  • Vary Neptune’s starting place and e-damping in sims
slide26

Observed

Simulated

slide30

Observed

Simulated

slide33

Observed

Simulated

slide39

Hot

Cold

slide42

Observed

Simulated

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Nice Model reproduces more properties of Kuiper Belt than any other previous scenario
  • Eccentricities of cold belt too high by a factor of 2
  • May be due to unaccounted for physics such as collisional damping
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