Origin of the Structure of the Kuiper Belt During a Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus an...
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Origin of the Structure of the Kuiper Belt During a Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”). Levison, H., Morbidelli, A., VanLaerhoven, C., Gomes, R., & Tsiganis, K. Icarus, Accepted. Nathan Kaib 5/16/08. Outline. Description of Kuiper Belt

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Nathan Kaib 5/16/08

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Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Origin of the Structure of the Kuiper Belt During a Dynamical Instability in the Orbits of Uranus and Neptune (“the Nice Model”)

Levison, H., Morbidelli, A., VanLaerhoven, C., Gomes, R., & Tsiganis, K.

Icarus, Accepted

Nathan Kaib

5/16/08


Outline

Outline

  • Description of Kuiper Belt

  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusions


Outline1

Outline

  • Description of Kuiper Belt

  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusions


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Missing Mass: KB only contains 0.01 – 0.1 Earth masses

  • Need 2-3 orders of magnitude more mass to accrete 100-1000 km bodies


Properties of the kuiper belt

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • 10 – 50% of objects found in resonances with Neptune

  • Inclinations extend up to ~40o


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Contains large population of excited orbits that do not pass near planets now

    • - Scattered Disk


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Contains double peaked inclination distribution:

    • “Hot” population

    • “Cold” population

Hot

Cold


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Hot and Cold populations have different properties

Hot

Bluer, Larger

Redder, Smaller

Cold


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Properties of the Kuiper Belt

  • Cold, low e population has sharp cutoff at 1:2 resonance with Neptune


Outline2

Outline

  • Description of Kuiper Belt

  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusions


Planetesimal scattering

Planetesimal Scattering


Outer planet migration

Outer Planet Migration

N

  • Nep, Ura, and Sat much more likely to scatter bodies in than eject them

  • Jupiter’s energy kicks are powerful enough to eject most bodies

J

U

S


Outer planet migration1

Outer Planet Migration

Neptune, Uranus, and Saturn migrate outwards and Jupiter moves in to conserve angular momentum


Current planet configuration

Current Planet Configuration

1:2 MMR

Saturn currently is ~1.3 AU beyond the 1:2 MMR with Jupiter


The nice model

The Nice Model

1:2 MMR

~35 AU

If there were 10’s of Earth masses of material beyond Neptune originally, then Saturn must have crossed the 1:2 MMR with Jupiter


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

  • Saturn crossing 1:2 MMR causes orbits of U and N to become chaotic

  • Dynamical friction due to scattering damps re-circurlarizes orbits


Nice model can explain

Nice Model Can Explain…

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Nice model can explain1

Nice Model Can Explain…

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Nice model can explain2

Nice Model Can Explain…

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Nice model can explain3

Nice Model Can Explain…

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Nice model can explain4

Nice Model Can Explain…

  • Cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment 3.8 Gyrs ago

  • High inclinations of Jovian Trojans

  • Existence of cometary bodies in main asteroid belt

  • Significant non-zero inclinations and eccentricities of giant planets

  • Irregular satellite populations of giant planets


Outline3

Outline

  • Description of Kuiper Belt

  • Giant Planet Migration and the Nice Model

  • Simulation Results

  • Conclusions


Simulations

Simulations

  • Start planets at last scattering between Uranus and Neptune

  • Surround Neptune’s orbit with torus of 60,000 test particles extending to 34 AU

  • Vary Neptune’s starting place and e-damping in sims


Simulations1

Simulations


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Observed

Simulated


Results summary

Results Summary


Results summary1

Results Summary


Results summary2

Results Summary


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Observed

Simulated


Results summary3

Results Summary


Results summary4

Results Summary


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Observed

Simulated


Results summary5

Results Summary


Results summary6

Results Summary


Results summary7

Results Summary


Results summary8

Results Summary


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Hot

Cold


Results summary9

Results Summary


Results summary10

Results Summary


Nathan kaib 5 16 08

Observed

Simulated


Results summary11

Results Summary


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Nice Model reproduces more properties of Kuiper Belt than any other previous scenario

  • Eccentricities of cold belt too high by a factor of 2

  • May be due to unaccounted for physics such as collisional damping


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