Metabolisme mikrobia
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Metabolisme Mikrobia. Metabolisme Mikrobia Katabolisme & Energi Penghasilan PMF Penghasilan ATP Biooksidasi Respirasi (Aerobik) Respirasi Anaerobik Fermentasi Fotoautotrofi Fotosisntesis (oksigenik & anoksigenik) Reaksi cahaya Reaksi gelap (fiksasi CO2) Anabolisme: Biosistesis

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Metabolisme mikrobia

Metabolisme Mikrobia

Metabolisme Mikrobia

Katabolisme & Energi

Penghasilan PMF

Penghasilan ATP

Biooksidasi

Respirasi (Aerobik)

Respirasi Anaerobik

Fermentasi

Fotoautotrofi

Fotosisntesis (oksigenik & anoksigenik)

Reaksi cahaya

Reaksi gelap (fiksasi CO2)

Anabolisme: Biosistesis

Biosisntesis karbohidrat

Biosisntesis Lipid

Biosisntesis Protein

Biosistesis asam nukleat


1 2 metabolisme mikrobia
1.2. Metabolisme mikrobia

  • Metabolisme:

  • Katabolisme : pemecahan  energi

  • Anabolisme : sintesis ← energi

  • Metabolisme selular utama:

  • Glikolisis

  • Siklus Krebs

  • Rantai Respirasi


Mekanisme dasar metabolisme penghasilan energi
Mekanisme dasar Metabolisme & Penghasilan Energi

  • Energi: kemampuan melakukan kerja

  • Sumber energi: cahaya matahari & bahan org/anorg

  • Bentuk energi yang dipakai: ATP

  • Jasad hidup tunduk terhadap Hukum Termodinamika

  • Aliran Elektron dari Rekduktan ke Oksidan menghasilkan energi

  • Enzim: katalisator protein yang membuat sistem kehidupan berjalan dengan cara memacu kecepatan reaksi pada suhu rendah.

  • Enzim tidak mengubag “Keq” tetapi menurnkan energi aktivasi  mempercepat tercapainya keadaanequilibrium


Energi bebas reaksi biokimiawi
Energi Bebas & Reaksi Biokimiawi

  • Reaksi : A + B C + D

  • Keq = (C) (D)/(A) (B)

  • Keadaan Standard: (A); (B); (C) ; (D)  1M ;

    pH = 7; T = 25°C = (298°K)

  • Energi bebas Standard:

    • G°’= - 2,3RT log Keq.

  • Keadaan equilibrium: konsentrasi (A), (B), (C) dan (D) sudah tetap !

  • G = G°’ + 2,3RT log K

  • = -2,3 RT logKeq + 2,3RT log K

  • eg. ATP  ADP + Pi

  • G°’ = -7300 cal/mol


Energi bebas reaksi redoks
Energi bebas Reaksi Redoks

  • G = -nF. E

    n = 2 (sistem hayati)

    F = 23062 cal/V.mol (Konst. Faraday)

    eg. NADH2  O2 (E = 1,14 Volt)

    G = 52.000 cal/mol  4,3 ATP

    Fakta: NADH2 = 3 ATP

    Efisiensi = 75%


1 3 penghasilan pmf proton motive force
1.3. Penghasilan PMF (Proton Motive Force)

  • Pembentukan gradien proton/pH di antara dua sisi membran:

  • Membran sel bakteri, arkhaea

  • Membran dalam mitokondria

  • Membran tilakoid kloroplas



1 4 penghasilan energi atp
1.4. Penghasilan energi: ATP

  • Bentuk energi yang digunakan jasad hidup (ATP)

  • Pembentukan ATP ada 3 macam:

  • Fosforilasi tingkat substrat

  • Fosforilasi oksidatif – khemiosmosis

  • Fosforilasi fotosintetik





A model redox reaction
A model : redox reaction...

  • Fe 2+ Fe3+ + e

  • Fe 2+ teroksidasi menjadi Fe3+ karena kehilangan elektron

  • Fe3+ tereduksi menjadiFe 2+ dengan menerima elektron


Koenzim nad fad
Koenzim: NAD & FAD

  • NAD: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide

    (NAD+ NADH2)

  • NADP: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate

    (NADP+ NADPH2)

  • FAD: Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide

    (FAD+  FADH2)


Fad fadh 2
FAD+ FADH2


Fad fadh 21
FAD+ FADH2


Nad nadh 2
(NAD+ NADH2)





Biooksidasi
Biooksidasi:

1. Respirasi aerobik  O2 (oksigen)

2. Respirasi anaerobik  anorganik

3. Fermentasi  organik

1. Respirasi Aerobik:

1.1. Glycolysis

1.2.Tricarboxylic Acid cycle (Krebs Cycle)

1.3. Oxidative phosphorylation


Reaksi biooksidasi reduksi
Reaksi biooksidasi-reduksi

Laktat + NAD+  Piruvat + NADH2

Bio-katalisator : Lactate Dehydrogenase


Energetics and carbon flow in (a) aerobic respiration, (b) anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


1 respirasi aerobik
1. Respirasi aerobik anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Embden meyerhof pathway
Embden-Meyerhof pathway anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Glycolysis:

A common biochemical pathway for the fermentation of glucose is glycolysis, also named the Embden-Meyerhof pathway for its major discoverers. Can be divided into three major stages.


Stages i and ii preparatory and redox reactions
Stages I and II: anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism Preparatory and Redox Reactions

Stage I : A series of preparatory rearrangements: reactions that do not involve oxidation-reduction and do not release energy but that lead to the production from glucose of two molecules of the key intermediate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.

Stage II: Oxidation-reduction occurs, energy is conserved in the form of ATP, and two molecules of pyruvate are formed.


Stage III: Production of Fermentation Products anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Stage III:

A second oxidation-reduction reaction occurs and fermentation products (for example, ethanol and CO2, or lactic acid) are formed.


1 1 glikolisis
1.1.Glikolisis anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Fruktosa 1 6 bi phosphate
Fruktosa-1,6-bi- Phosphate anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Perubahan piruvat asetil coa
Perubahan Piruvat anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism Asetil-CoA

Pyruvate + Coenzyme A + NAD+

Acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH2

Coenzyme A


1 2 siklus krebs
1.2.Siklus Krebs anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


1 2 siklus krebs1
1.2. Siklus Krebs anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


1 2 siklus krebs2
1.2.Siklus Krebs anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


1 3 fosforilasi oksidatif rantai respirasi
1.3.Fosforilasi Oksidatif (Rantai Respirasi) anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Akseptor elektron terakhir: O2


Cytochrome
Cytochrome anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Fosforilasi oksidatif
Fosforilasi oksidatif anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Generation of pmf teori khemiosmotik
Generation of PMF: teori khemiosmotik anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Penghasilan atp respirasi aerobik
Penghasilan ATP: Respirasi Aerobik anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Glikolisis (8 ATP)

Perubahan Piruvat  Asetil-CoA (6 ATP)

Siklus Krebs (24 ATP)

Fosforilasi oksidatif

38 ATP


Penghasilan atp
Penghasilan ATP anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

  • Glikolisis:

  • Penghasilan ATP:

  • 1,3 bifosfogliserat  3 –fosfoliserat : 2 ATP

  • PEP  Piruvat : 2 ATP

    --------------------------------------------------------------

  • Subtotal 4 ATP

    --------------------------------------------------------------

  • Pemakaian ATP:

  • Glukosa  Glukosa -6-P : 1 ATP

  • Fruktosa-6-P  Fruktosa-1,6-bi-P : 1 ATP

    --------------------------------------------------------------

  • Sub-total 2 ATP

    ---------------------------------------------------------------

  • Netto penghasilan 2 ATP

    ---------------------------------------------------------------

  • Penghasilan NADH2

  • Gliseraldehid-3-P  1,3-bi-P-Gliserat: 2 NADH


Piruvat asetil coa
Piruvat anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism  Asetil-CoA

  • Piruvat  Asetil-CoA : 2 NADH2

    Piruvat + Co-A + NAD+

    Aseti-CoA + CO2 + NADH2


Siklus krebs
Siklus Krebs anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

  • Isositrat  α-Ketoglutarat : 2 NADH2

  • α-Ketoglutarat  Suksinil-CoA : 2 NADH2

  • Suksinil-CoA  Suksinat : 2 ATP

  • Suksinat  Fumarat : 2 FADH2

  • Malat  Oksaloasetat : 2 NADH2

  • Netto:

  • 6 NADH2

  • 2 FADH2

  • 2 ATP


Fosforilasi oksidatif1
Fosforilasi Oksidatif anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

  • 1 NADH2 3 ATP

  • 1 FADH2  2 ATP

  • Glikolisis :

  • 2 NADH2  2 x 3 = 6 ATP

  • Piruvat  Asetil-CoA:

  • 2 NADH2  2 x 3 = 6 ATP

  • Siklus Krebs:

  • Isositrat  α-Ketoglutarat : 2 NADH2 = 6 ATP

  • α-Ketoglutarat  Suksinil-CoA : 2 NADH2 = 6 ATP

  • Suksinat  Fumarat : 2 FADH2 = 4 ATP

  • Malat  Oksaloasetat : 2 NADH2 = 6 ATP

    --------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Sub-total = 22 ATP

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Total 34 ATP


Total penghasilan atp
Total Penghasilan ATP anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

  • Glikolisis :

  • 2 NADH2  2 x 3 = 6 ATP (Fosforilasi oksidatif)

  • 2 ATP = 2 ATP (Fosforilasi tkt substrat)

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Sub-total = 8 ATP

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Piruvat  Asetil-CoA:

  • 2 NADH2  2 x 3 = 6 ATP (Fosforilasi oksidatif)

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Siklus Krebs:

  • Isositrat  α-Ketoglutarat : 2 NADH2 = 6 ATP (Fosforilasi oksidatif)

  • α-Ketoglutarat  Suksinil-CoA : 2 NADH2 = 6 ATP (Fosforilasi oksidatif)

  • Suksinat  Fumarat : 2 FADH2 = 4 ATP (Fosforilasi oksidatif)

  • Malat  Oksaloasetat : 2 NADH2 = 6 ATP (Fosforilasi oksidatif)

  • Suksinil-CoA  Suksinat : 2 ATP = 2 ATP (Fosforilasi tkt substrat)

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Sub-total = 24 ATP

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Total 38 ATP

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • Bakteria & Archaea : 38 ATP

  • Mikrobia eukaryotik: 36 ATP (2 ATP digunakan untuk transfer 2 NADH2 dari sitoplasma ke dalam mitokondria)


Total energi respirasi aerobik
Total energi Respirasi Aerobik anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Glikolisis : 2 NADH2 = 6 ATP

2 ATP = 2 ATP

Piruvat  Acetyl-CoA 2 NADH2 = 6 ATP

Siklus Krebs 6 NADH2 = 18 ATP

2 FADH2 = 4 ATP

2 ATP = 2 ATP

--------------------------------------------------------------

Total = 38 ATP

---------------------------------------------------------------


Respirasi anaerobik
Respirasi Anaerobik anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

  • Reduksi Nitrat  Nitrit NH3  N2 (Closteridium sp.)

  • Reduksi Sulfat  H2S (Desulforomonas sp.)

  • Redksi CO2  CH4 (Methanococcus sp. ; Archaea)


2 respirasi anaerobik reduksi nitrat
2. Respirasi Anaerobik: Reduksi Nitrat anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Reduksi Nitrat: NO3 + e + H+ NO2 + H2O


Respirasi anaerobik reduksi sulfat
Respirasi anaerobik: Reduksi Sulfat anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Siklus Sulfur di alam


Reduksi sulfat
Reduksi Sulfat anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Bakteri Pereduksi Sulfat

Reaksi Reduksi Sulfat


Respirasi anerobik pembentukan ch4
Respirasi anerobik: Pembentukan CH4 anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

Molekul methana


Pembentukan metana redusksi co2
Pembentukan metana: redusksi CO2 anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Methanogenesis
Methanogenesis anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


3 fermentasi
3. Fermentasi anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

3.1. Ethanolic fermentation

3.2. Propionic acid

3.3. Mixed acid

3.4. Butanediol

3.5. Butyric acid

3.6. Amino acid

3.7. Fermentation of acetate to methane

3.8. Methanogenesis


Lactic acid fermentation
Lactic acid fermentation anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Fermentasi etanol
Fermentasi etanol anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Fermentasi
Fermentasi anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Katabolisme lipid trigliserida
Katabolisme Lipid: Trigliserida anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Betha oxidation
Betha-oxidation anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Protein catabolism
Protein catabolism anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Nucleotide catabolism
Nucleotide catabolism anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Katabolisme purin
Katabolisme Purin anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Overview of metabolism
Overview of metabolism anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


5 photoautotrophy
5. Photoautotrophy anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism

5.1. Absrorption of light energy

5.2. Oxygenic photosynthesis

53. Anoxygenic photosynthesis


Fotosintesis
Fotosintesis anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Fotosintesis reaksi cahaya
Fotosintesis: Reaksi cahaya anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Fotosintesis reaksi cahaya1
Fotosintesis: reaksi cahaya anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Light reaction
Light Reaction anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Cyclic photo phosphorilation animation
Cyclic Photo-phosphorilation: animation anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


Anoxygenic photosynthesis
Anoxygenic photosynthesis anaerobic respiration, (c) chemolithotrophic metabolism, and (d) phototrophic; metabolism


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