Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 42

Relative Contributions and Impacts of Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 87 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Relative Contributions and Impacts of Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries. James H. Tidwell, Ph.D. Kentucky State University And Geoff Allan, Ph.D. New South Wales Fisheries. Tidwell’s Theory of Fisheries Relativity. Fish is man’s most important source of animal protein (FAO 2000).

Download Presentation

Relative Contributions and Impacts of Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

Relative Contributions and Impacts of Aquaculture and Capture Fisheries

James H. Tidwell, Ph.D.

Kentucky State University

And

Geoff Allan, Ph.D.

New South Wales Fisheries


Tidwell s theory of fisheries relativity

Tidwell’s Theory of Fisheries Relativity


Fish is man s most important source of animal protein fao 2000

Fish is man’s most important source of animal protein (FAO 2000)

  • Fish makes the greatest contribution where needed most.

    Fish as % animal protein

    North America 10%

    Africa 17%

    Asia 26%

    China 22%


The demand for fish is increasing

The Demand for Fish is Increasing


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

Why?

  • Not really due to increased rates of consumption

  • (15-16 kg/person).

  • Primarily due to population growth.

    1.5 MMT additional product each year!

World Population Increase


Where does it come from only two sources capture or culture

Where does it come from?Only Two Sources-Capture or Culture

  • Historically – the oceans

  • About 80% of our foodfish supply comes from ocean capture fisheries.

  • If we needed more – we just fished harder – longer – or further away.


Today s reality

Today’s Reality

The ocean’s bounty is NOT limitless.

50% of ocean fisheries fully exploited.

70% in need of urgent management. (FAO 1999).


Invest in bigger faster boats with longer ranges

What We Have Done?

Invest in bigger, faster boats with longer ranges

  • Invest in new technologies to locate and aggregate the fish

  • Mace (1997) estimated that the “catching capacity” of the fleet has increased 4-8 X faster than actual catch rates.

  • Increased outlays and decreasing returns create a financial inertia against reducing fishing pressures.


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

Why?

  • Consumer demand drives the system

  • Not only how much – but what species are targeted


Environmental costs of capture fisheries

Environmental Costs of Capture Fisheries

  • Major Issue –By-Catch

  • Longline fisheries -billfishes – pressures on shark species – slow reproduction and recovery rates.

  • Trawling technologies for ground fish like flounder-also catch large numbers of skates and rays.

Shrimp trawls may kill 10 kg of juvenile finfish for each kg of shrimp


By catch

By-Catch

  • Driven by consumer demand

  • Other high profile examples

    • Shrimp and Sea turtles

  • Tuna and shrimp are #1 and #2 in popularity

  • Tuna and Dolphins


Current situation

Current Situation

  • The ocean can supply only 2/3 of current demand. Significant increases from capture appear biologically unsustainable.

  • Population growth continues. Demands for fish increases over 1 million tons per year.

  • Where will almost all future supply increases come from?


A q uaculture is the fastest growing food production activity in the world

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production activity in the world.


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

Projected requirements for food grade fisheries


Growth of aquaculture

Growth of Aquaculture

  • With a growth rate of 11% per year – Aquaculture is on a pace to surpass beef production by 2010.

Not only how much but where.

  • Aquaculture is growing 6X faster in developing countries than in developed countries

While 80% of beef production is in industrialized nations


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

Aquaculture Production:

Developed vs Developing countries

91% omnivores or filter feeders


Fao states that

FAO States that:

  • “As an inexpensive source of highly nutritious animal protein, aquaculture has become an important factor for improving food security, raising nutritional standards, and alleviating poverty, particularly in the world’s poorest countries.”


Food security

Food Security

  • Production already increased 400% between 1984 and 1998.

  • FAO 2001 predicts significant increases in small-scale aquaculture production in Africa.


There are not too few fish there are too many people

There are not too few fish - there are too many people

If terrestrialagriculture had not developed, we could never support the current human population.

A similar juncture has been reached or passed in fish supplies.


Aquaculture too has its costs

Aquaculture Too Has Its Costs

  • The very rapid growth of aquaculture has led, in some cases, to environmental impacts and conflicts over limited resources.

  • You cannot produce 40 Billion kg of anything without leaving an “environmental footprint”.

  • However, let us base our analyses on facts and fairly compare these impacts to other sources.


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

Painting with a broad brush. Don’t say aquaculture when discussing one species!!

The Down Side ofFish Farming

“Aquaculture Industry a failure”, study claims


Shrimp and salmon aquaculture

Shrimp and Salmon = Aquaculture

/

9%

6%


Environmental costs of aquaculture

Environmental Costs of Aquaculture

  • Mangrove Destruction

  • Fact: As much as 50-60% of the historic resource has been lost.

  • The World Wildlife Fund reported < 5% of mangrove losses due to shrimp farms. Most to urbanization, fuel, pulp…


Issue fish meal in aquaculture diets

Issue: Fish Meal in Aquaculture Diets

  • Naylor et al (2000) reported that aquaculture is “a contributing factor to the collapse of fish stocks worldwide”.

  • “ever increasing amounts of small pelagic fish would be caught for use in aquaculture feeds”


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

An analysis of these data indicates no statistical relationship between aquaculture production and pelagic fish landings or fish meal production (P values > 0.80)

World Aquaculture

Production

35

30

25

World Landings

of Pelagic Fish

20

Million Metric Tons

15

el nino

10

World Fishmeal

Production

5

0

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999


What has occurred is a market driven reallocation of how this fixed amount is used

What has occurred is a market driven reallocation of how this fixed amount is used.

30 MMT


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

Fish Meal Use vs. Total Production in U.S. Catfish

6.9X Return


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

  • Naylor et al pointed out that certain species are “net consumers” of fish.

  • Specifically salmon and shrimp requiring 3Kg of fish to produce 1Kg of fish on the farm. (actually less)

>4X Return


Ok what if we get that same fish from the wild

OK- What if we get that same fish from the wild??

100%

30-35%


Kg of forage fish required to produce 1 kg of salmon or shrimp

Kg of Forage Fish Required to Produce 1 Kg of Salmon or Shrimp

KG

By-Catch + Wastes

Trophic Conversion


Nutrition research

Nutrition Research

  • Just as other livestock industries have reduced fish meal inclusion – so will aquaculture – as nutritional requirements of culture species are identified.

Poultry 2 species

Aquaculture 167 species


Fish meal use in poultry

Fish Meal Use in Poultry


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

  • Naylor et al. 1999 – “due to a reliance on fish meal, aquaculture of these species is being subsidized by the marine ecosystem.”

  • If we source these same products from capture fisheries, they are ENTIRELY “subsidized” by the marine ecosystem.


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

  • Species identified as net producers do not convert food to flesh with more metabolic efficiency – They are just subsidized by a different ecosystem – freshwater or terrestrial.

These have their own environmental costs


Why is aquaculture more efficient

Why is Aquaculture More Efficient?

  • Less waste – In capture fisheries as much as 40% of the total catch may be wasted or discarded (Howgate 1997).

  • In aquaculture there is a shorter chain, with more control , from production to harvest to processing and distribution.


Today s reality1

Today’s Reality

  • We need Capture Fisheries AND Aquaculture working together to meet human demand.

Soon they must each supply half of the worlds fish supply.


Percentage of total world seafood supplied by aquaculture

Percentage of Total World Seafood Supplied by Aquaculture

%


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

  • “The divisions between aquaculture and capture fisheries will rapidly fade, and in many regions, have already gone” (Coates 1996).

  • In Alaska aquaculture is “outlawed” but “wild harvest” salmon and oyster industries rely heavily on aquacultured seedstock.


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

  • Rational growth of aquaculture production is necessary to meet basically ALL future increases in the world’s fish supplies.

  • Simplistic, unbalanced assessments of aquaculture - multiplied through the popular media - can impede responsible aquaculture development.


Relative contributions and impacts of aquaculture and capture fisheries

  • This could negatively impact food security in regions where high quality protein is needed most.

It could actually increase pressures on marine stocks to supply the shortfall.


Fao 2001

FAO (2001):

  • “ Irrespective of whether inaccurate information is generated deliberately to promote a specific cause, or inadvertently through ignorance, it can have a major impact on public opinion and policy making that may not be in the best interest of either sustainable use of fisheries resources or the conservation of aquatic systems.”


  • Login