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High Energy Neutrinos and Gamma-Ray Bursts. Kohta Murase (YITP) S. Nagataki, K. Ioka, T. Nakamura K. Asano, S. Inoue, H. Takami K. Sato, F. Iocco, P.D. Serpico. taken from IceCube homepage. Neutrinos as a Probe of Cosmic-Ray Acceleration.

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High energy neutrinos and gamma ray bursts

High Energy Neutrinos andGamma-Ray Bursts

Kohta Murase (YITP)

S. Nagataki, K. Ioka, T. Nakamura

K. Asano, S. Inoue, H. Takami

K. Sato, F. Iocco, P.D. Serpico

Neutrinos as a probe of cosmic ray acceleration

taken from IceCube homepage

Neutrinos as a Probe of Cosmic-Ray Acceleration

Astrophysical Accelerators(GRB, AGN, Cluster of Galaxies…)

→ cosmic-rays accelerated above TeV even up to ZeV

pp/ pγ → π , K → ν , γ

pp/pγ reaction

Neutrinos → good evidence of cosmic-ray acceleration

(Especially useful as a probe of ~100 PeV energy cosmic-rays)

Cosmic-rays → Deflection by magnetic fields (talk by Dr. Takami)

Gamma-rays above TeV →Attenuation by CMB and CIB (talk by Dr. Asano)

km3 telescopes (IceCube/KM3Net)

Various model predictions have become testable

  • GRB (talk by Prof. Meszaros)

  • Merits! - time and position coincidence

  • Testing the shock model (baryonic or not?)

  • Magnetic field/amount of baryons

  • The origin of observed UHECRs?

Plan of talk
Plan of Talk

Model-Predictions for High-Energy Neutrinos from Astrophysical Sources

1. Neutrino Emission & Gamma-Ray Bursts

a. Pre-Swift Predictions (Prompt Emission)

b. Swift-Era Predictions (Flares and so on)

c. Neutrinos and Progenitors

  • Connection between Astrophysical Neutrino Sources and High-Energy Cosmic-Rays

Afterglows e p max zev eev gev tev
AfterglowsEp,max ~ ZeVEeV ν, GeV-TeV γ

Meszaros (2001)

Prompt Emission

Ep,max ~ EeV-ZeV

PeV ν, GeV-TeV γ

Below Photosphere

Ep,max ~ PeV-EeV

TeV-PeV ν, invisible γ

Flares/Early Afterglows

Ep,max ~ EeV

PeV-EeV ν, GeV γ


Prompt (Waxman & Bahcall 97), Afterglow (Waxman & Bahcall 00/Dermer 02)

  • Assumption that observed UHECRs come from GRBs (in original works)

  • Prediction of neutrinos associated with prompt and afterglow emission

(And many studies, e.g., Halzen & Hooper 99, Guetta et al. 04, Asano 05)

  • Treatment of pγreaction:

  • Rectangular approx.→More sophistication

  • Inclusion of various cooling processes

  • Treatment of the GRB rate history:

  • GRB rate models→e.g. Guetta et al. (04,07)


KM & Nagataki, PRD, 73, 063002(2006)


Motivated by the recent Swift’s discoveries, we have predicted new possibilities of neutrinos and cosmic rays.

KM & Nagataki, PRL, 97, 051101 (2006)

KM, Ioka, Nagataki, & Nakamura, ApJL, 651, L5 (2006)

KM, PRD, 76, 123001 (2007)

Afterglows external shock model eev gev tev waxman bahcall 00 dermer 02
AfterglowsExternal Shock ModelEeV ν, GeV-TeV γ (Waxman & Bahcall 00)(Dermer 02)

Meszaros (2001)

Prompt Emission

from Classical (High-Luminosity) GRBs

Internal Shock Model

PeV ν, GeV-TeV γ

(Waxman & Bahcall 97)

Prompt neutrino emission
Prompt Neutrino Emission


A r~1013.5 cm

B r~1014.5 cm

Γ=300, Uγ=UB

EGRB,γ=1053 ergs (A&B)


large uncertainties...

  • Inner range (~1013 cm)

  • neutrino efficient, UHECRs impossible

  • Middle range (~1014 cm)

  • neutrino efficient, UHE proton possible

  • Outer range (~1015 cm)

  • neutrino inefficient, UHE nuclei survive

A: muon events ~ 0.1

B: muon events ~ 0.01

C: muon events ~ 1

(C is a very extreme case)

Only nearby/energetic bursts can be promising

(r-determination ← GLAST (e.g., KM & Ioka 08))

The cumulative background
The Cumulative Background

Set A - r~1013-1014.5cm

KM & Nagataki, PRD, 73, 063002(2006)

Set B - r~1014-1015.5cm

  • ~10 events/yr by IceCube ( fiducial baryon load)

  • Our models are tested by AMANDA/IceCube group.

    The optimistic model is being constrained (Achterberg et al. 08)

The key parameter

– baryon loadingΕHECR ≡ε2 N(ε)

Γ=102.5, Uγ=UB

Current AMANDA limit

higher baryon loading


fiducial baryon loading


Towards testing the GRB-UHECR hypothesis through νs

Early afterglows eev gev tev dermer 07 km 07
Early AfterglowsEeV ν, GeV-TeV γ (Dermer 07)(KM 07)

Meszaros (2001)

Prompt Emission

from Low-Luminosity GRBs

PeV ν, GeV-TeV γ

(KM et al. 06)

(Gupta & Zhang 06)


PeV-EeV ν, GeV γ

(KM &Nagataki 06)

Novel results of swift xrf060218
Novel Results of Swift (XRF060218)

  • 1. Low-luminosity (LL) GRBs?

  • e.g., GRB060218 (XRF060218)

  • ・The 2nd nearby event (~140Mpc)

  • ・Associated with a SN Ic

  • ・Thermal component

  • (shock breakout?)

  • ・Much dimmer than usual GRBs

  • (ELL,γ ~ 1050 ergs ~ 0.001 EGRB,γ)

  • ・LL GRBs (e.g., XRF060218, GRB980425)

  • → more frequent than HL GRBs

  • (Local Rate ~ 102-3 Gpc-1 yr-3 )

  • (Soderberg et al. 06, Liang et al. 07

  • Guetta et al. 07 etc…)


Liang et al. (07)




Neutrinos from ll grbs
Neutrinos from LL GRBs

  • Ex.) XRF060218-like burst

  • Prompt nonthrmal emission Epk ~ 5 keV

  • ↑Internal shock model (e.g., Toma, Ioka, Sakamoto, & Nakamura 07)

  • Prolonged thermal emission kT ~ 0.15 keV


Muon events ~ 1 event

Muon events ~ 0.1 event


See also Gupta & Zhang 07

For early afterglows

see Yu, Dai, & Zheng (08)

KM, Ioka, Nagataki, & Nakamura, ApJL, 651, L5 (2006)

Novel results of swift flares
Novel Results of Swift (Flares)

  • 2. Flares in the early afterglow phase

  • Energetic (Eflare,γ ~ 0.1 EGRB,γ(Falcone et al. 07))

  • (Eflare,γ ~ EGRB,γ for some flares such as GRB050502b)

  • δt >~ 102-3 s, δt/T < 1 → internal dissipation models

  • (e.g. late internal shock model)

  • Flaring in the (far-UV)/x-ray range (Epeak ~ (0.1-1) keV)

  • (Maybe) relatively lower Lorentz

  • factors (Γ ~ a few×10)

  • Flares are common

  • (at least 1/3 ~ 1/2 of LGRBs)

  • (even for SGRBs)

  • Baryonic (possibly dirty

  • fireball?) vs non-baryonic?

  • ↑neutrinos!


Burrows et al. (07)


Photopion (p→π)

Production Efficiency


Baryon Energy

Neutrino Energy Flux




↓Normalizing all the typical values for HL GRBs to 1

Hence, we can expect flares and LL GRBs are important!

Neutrino predictions in the swift era
Neutrino Predictions in the Swift Era

KM & Nagataki, PRL, 97, 051101 (2006)

KM, Ioka, Nagataki, & Nakamura, ApJL, 651, L5 (2006)

See also, Gupta & Zhang 07


Possible dominant contribution in the very high energy region


(Eflare,γ = 0.1 EGRB,γ )


(ELL,γ ~ 0.001 EGRB,γ )

ν flashes → Coincidence with flares/early AGs, a few events/yr

νs from LL GRBs → little coincidence with bursts, a few events/yr

Approaches to GRBs through high-energy neutrinos

Flares→information on flare models (baryonic or nonbaryonic etc.)

LL GRBs→νs as an indicator of far SNe associated with LL GRBs

Notes on Early Afterglow Emission


shallow decay

Its origin is still controversial...

・Forward Shock Model (energy injection etc.)

・Reverse Shock Model (Genet et al. 07, Beloborodov 07)

・Late Prompt Emission Model (Ghisellini et al. 07)

steep decay


KM, PRD, 76, 123001 (2007)

high baryon loading


fiducial baryon loading

EHECR ~ Eshallow,γ

~ 0.1 EGRB,γ

(For forward shock νs,

see Dermer 02, 07)

  • Typically Eshallow,γ ~ 0.1 EGRB,γ (Liang et al. 07)

  • RS-FS model: ν-detection by IceCube would be difficult…

  • Late prompt emission model: ν-detection may be possible.

Meszaros (2001)

Below Photosphere

TeV ν

(Meszaros & Waxman 01)

(Schneider et al. 02)

( Razzaque, Meszaros, & Waxman 03)

Below around photosphere
Below/Around Photosphere

Below/around the photosphere (even inside the star)

Cosmic-ray acceleration could be still expected

(e.g., Meszaros & Waxman 01, Razzaque et al. 03)

(pp optical depth) ~ np σpp(r/Γ) >~ 0.1 →pp reaction important

pp reaction → based on

Geant4 & SYBILL codes

r=1012.5 cm

Γ=100, UB=0.1Uγ

strong meson/muon cooling

kaon-contribution is important

(Ando & Beacom 05)

(Asano & Nagataki 06)

Neutrinos and progenitor
Neutrinos and Progenitor

termination shock

Termination shock → shock dissipation

→ thermalization ~keV

→ providing target photons

(Meszaros & Waxman 01)

Fig. from Razzaque, Meszaros, & Waxman

Schneider et al.


Precursor = successful GRBs

(GRB rate)

Choked = failed GRBs

(SN Ibc rate)

(pp neutrinos are not shown→)

Fabio, KM et al., ApJ (08)

Connection between astrophysical neutrino sources and high energy cosmic rays
Connection betweenAstrophysical Neutrino Sources and High-Energy Cosmic-Rays

Grb uhecr hypothesis
GRB-UHECR Hypothesis

The original argument (Waxman 95, Vietri 95)


Possible but requiring high baryon loading…

(Lower local rate leads to higher baryon load…)

← UHECR-normalization

(except for Flares)

KM, PRD, 76, 123001 (07)

HL Prompt ~ 30 events/yr

LL Prompt ~ 10 events/yr

AG (ISM) ~ 0.1 events/yr

AG (WIND) ~ 1 event/yr

Flare ~ 2 events/yr

(not UHECR source)

Notes hl ll grbs and uhecrs
Notes: HL/LL GRBs and UHECRs

KM, Ioka, Nagataki, & Nakamura, submitted (2008)

UHECR production is possible in low-luminosity GRBs

The source number density ← PAO, TA

Burst Models →Sensitive to effective EGMF strength

(structured + intergalactic)

Necessity of future observations and theoretical studies

(see talk by Dr. Takami)

Notes heavy nuclei
Notes: Heavy Nuclei?

Wang, Razzaque, & Meszaros (2008)

KM, Ioka, Nagataki, & Nakamura, submitted (2008)

Recent PAO results → (tentative) existence of heavier nuclei (Unger et al. 07)

UHE nuclei production in GRBs (IS, RS, and FS models) and hypernovae → Possible at enough large radii r

Survival of UHE heavy nuclei

→ neutrino “dark”

→ TeV gamma-ray “bright”

<escape of TeV gamma-rays>

+ secondary delayed emission

(Totani 98, Asano & Inoue 07)

(KM, Asano, & Nagataki, ApJ (07),

Takahashi, KM, et al., in prep. (08))

(talk by Dr. Asano)



Neutrinos from agn
Neutrinos from AGN

The most frequently discussed UHECR candidates

(talk by Prof. Blandford, Dr. Inoue)

Many theoretical papers on neutrinos

(Szabo & Protheroe, Stecker et al., Rachen & Biermann, Muniz & Meszaros, Mannheim, Atoyan & Dermer…)

Ex.) Giant AGN Flare model (Farrar & Gruzinov 08)

r=1017.5 cm


Muon event rate ~(0.1-1) events/yr

Neutrinos from clusters of galaxies
Neutrinos from Clusters of Galaxies

KM, Inoue & Nagataki, to be submitted (08)

KM, Inoue, & Nagataki, in prep. (08)

Cluster shocks (e.g., accretion shocks) → Emax ~ Z 1019 eV may be possible

CGs ⇔ The origin of second knee cosmic-rays??

Broken PL


SN shock

+ CG shock

Shock radius ~ virial radius

→ Muon events ~ a few events/yr

Diffusion from Central AGN Model

(Berezinsky et al., Colafrancesco & Blasi)

Broken PL spectrum

→ (0.1-1)% of EGRET limit

(See talk by Dr. Inoue)

Gzk neutrinos
GZK Neutrinos

Takami, KM, Nagataki, Sato (08)

PAO limit

Auger 07 limit



(Best-fit model of

Kneiske et al. 04)

  • Ankle model vs dip model → dip model leads to 10 PeV bump

  • Strong evolution model → detection in the near future

  • (Yukusel & Kistler 07)

High energy neutrinos and grbs summary
High-Energy Neutrinos and GRBs: Summary

  • We have performed more sophisticated calculations on neutrino spectra under the internal/external model.

    →Our results have been tested by AMANDA/IceCube.

  • We have predicted new possibilities of neutrino emission from GRBs, motivated by Swift observations.

    1. Neutrinos from flares and early afterglows

    2. Neutrino bursts from low luminosity (LL) GRBs

  • We can also expect other neutrino signals (CG, AGN etc).

  • Neutrinos (and gamma-rays) are useful as a probe of cosmic-ray acceleration in astrophysical sources.

  • If detected, we can obtain the important clues to models of the source and cosmic-ray acceleration.

  • The connection between GRBs and UHECRs?

  • High energy neutrino astronomy will come soon!