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Agenda for Manage Activity. 1. Objective 2. People 3. Budget and schedule 4. Schedules 5. Homework. 1.Objective. Manage activity Manage tasks Completion criteria Pseudo-completion criteria. 1. Objective. Manage activity.

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agenda for manage activity
Agenda for Manage Activity
  • 1. Objective
  • 2. People
  • 3. Budget and schedule
  • 4. Schedules
  • 5. Homework
1 objective
1.Objective
  • Manage activity
  • Manage tasks
  • Completion criteria
  • Pseudo-completion criteria

1. Objective

manage activity
Manage activity
  • The manage activity establishes the development environment and controls development of the product

1. Objective

manage tasks
Manage Tasks

schedule budget

people

Control cost & schedule

Provide

staff

facilities

tools

capital

communications

library

risks, TPPs

Control risk

issues

actions

Resolve issues & actions

Provide

environment

life cycle plan

configurations

changes

problems

Generate life cycle plan

Control change

1. Objective

completion criteria
Completion Criteria
  • Complete when the product is sold to the customer

1. Objective

2 people
2. People
  • Most important asset
  • Key people
  • Attributes
  • Finding people

2. People

most important asset
Most important asset
  • Good people are the most important asset for successful product development

2. People

key people 1 of 2
Key people (1 of 2)
  • Technologist -- knows the principles of what is to be designed
  • Designer -- knows how product can be build
  • Builder -- makes the product work
  • Customer interface -- interacts with customer

2. People

key people 2 of 2
Key people (2 of 2)
  • Tester -- tests the product
  • Contract and administrative -- handles technical contract and money issues
  • Environmental expert -- knows requirements imposed by environment
  • Specialty expert -- knows reliability and maintainability
  • Supportability expert - knows supportability

2. People

attributes
Attributes
  • Have proven experience in needed area
  • Take ownership
  • Skilled in technology or management
  • Can work in teams
  • Have big-picture perspective; aren’t parochial

2. People

finding people
Finding people
  • Direct encounter
  • Reference from trusted colleagues
  • Functional organization

2. People

3 budget and schedule
3. Budget and schedule
  • Budget-and-schedule diagram
  • Work breakdown structure (WBS)
  • Events
  • Tasks and level of effort (LOE)
  • Resources
  • Schedules
  • Cost/schedule control system (C/SCS)

3. Budget and schedule

budget and schedule diagram
Budget-and-schedule diagram

Contract

-- price

-- schedule

contract

CDRLs

Work breakdown structure

Tasks & LOE

Events

Budget & schedule control

Schedule

Resources

3. Budget and schedule

wbs 1 of 4
WBS (1 of 4)
  • Definition
    • A product-oriented family tree composed of hardware, software, services, and data that completely defines a product
    • Usually applied at the top level (project level)
    • Defines the products to be produced and relates work to be accomplished to the end product

3. Budget and schedule

wbs 2 of 4
WBS (2 of 4)
  • Government approach
    • MIL-STD-881A defines approach to WBS
    • Customer
      • Uses WBS to compare proposals against guidelines to determine if proposals are reasonable
      • Sometimes specifies the WBS
      • Requires Budget and schedule to be managed with respect to the WBS

3. Budget and schedule

wbs 3 of 4
WBS (3 of 4)
  • Types
    • Contract WBS (CWBS) -- Complete WBS applicable to a particular contract or procurement action
    • Project WBS -- Contains all WBS elements related to the development or production of an item; formed by combining all CWBSs in a program

3. Budget and schedule

wbs 4 of 4
WBS (4 of 4)

Aircraft system

Air vehicle

System ILS

System test

System I&T

Program management

Aircraft

Avionics

Mgt

SE

This example is typical of a MIL-ST-881A WBS,

but it does not align well with hierarchy of products

3. Budget and schedule

events 1 of 2
Events (1 of 2)
  • Definition
    • Events are important occurrences
    • Examples include
      • Start of program
      • Reviews
      • Build completions
      • Test completions
      • Sell off

3. Budget and schedule

events 2 of 2
Events (2 of 2)
  • Event characterization
    • Characterized by a set of entry and exit criteria
    • Examples of entry criteria include
      • Specification and interfaces complete
      • Design complete
    • Examples of exit criteria include
      • Agreement that design is adequate
      • Consensus that testing is adequate

3. Budget and schedule

tasks and level of effort loe
Tasks and level of effort (LOE)
  • A task -- a piece of work. Budget and schedule control systems prefer the use of tasks as opposed to level of effort
  • Level of effort (LOE) -- work that is performed assuming one person produces a fixed amount of work

3. Budget and schedule

resources 1 of 3
Resources (1 of 3)
  • Definition
    • Work and material assigned to a task
    • The amount of work assigned is determined using cost estimating techniques similar to those used to make the original proposal for the work

3. Budget and schedule

resources 2 of 3
Resources (2 of 3)
  • Estimating Cost
    • Process of assigning resources to each task and each level of effort activity

3. Budget and schedule

resources 3 of 3
Resources (3 of 3)
  • Techniques for estimating costs
    • Actual experience by the contractor
    • Rules of thumb such as $xx per line of code
    • Standard cost estimating guidelines like the Air Force guideline LS-24 for predicting cost of documentation

3. Budget and schedule

4 schedules
4. Schedules
  • Gantt chart
  • PERT
  • IMS/SEMS
  • IMP/SEDS
  • Budget and schedule system

4. Schedules

gantt chart
Gantt chart
  • Definition
    • A simple schedule that shows events Vs time
    • May show interconnectivity of events

Buy material

Dig holes

String wire

Install gate

1 2 3 4

Day

4. Schedules

pert 1 of 8
PERT (1 of 8)
  • Definition
    • A task based schedule with interconnectivity shown
    • Usually computerized to allow easy adjustment of events and durations.
    • Tools that support PERT include
      • Primavera
      • Microsoft Project
    • Allows computing metrics such as critical path and amount of slack (float)
    • Stands for program evaluation and review technique

4. Schedules

pert 2 of 8
PERT (2 of 8)
  • PERT events
    • Can be added to PERT to fix points in time
    • Examples are
      • Start date
      • End date
      • Fixed milestones

4. Schedules

pert 3 of 8
PERT (3 of 8)
  • PERT tasks
    • Represent blocks of labor
    • Normally have a duration
    • Are linked to a predecessor task or an event
    • May be involved in multiple links

4. Schedules

pert 4 of 8
PERT (4 of 8)

PERT linkages

Finish-to-start

Event

Event

Start-to-finish

Event

Event

Event

Start-to-start

Event

Event

Finish-to-finish

Event

4. Schedules

pert 5 of 8
PERT (5 of 8)
  • Definitions use in PERT
    • Total slack -- Amount of time by which a task can be delayed without delaying project completion
    • Free slack -- Amount of time by which a task can be delayed without delaying another task
    • Float -- Same as free slack

4. Schedules

pert 6 of 8
PERT (6 of 8)
  • Critical path -- The path, or sequence, of tasks that must be completed to finish project on time
  • Constraint -- A limitation placed on the start or finish of a task
  • Dependency relationship -- The relationship between a dependent task and its predecessor
  • Resource allocation -- Assignment of quantifiable amount of work to a task

4. Schedules

pert 7 of 8
PERT (7 of 8)
  • PERT task constraints
    • As soon as possible -- unconstrained
    • As late as possible -- delay without holding up project
    • Start no later than -- start on or before designated date
    • Must start on -- start on designated date

4. Schedules

pert 8 of 8
PERT (8 of 8)
  • Start no earlier than -- start on or after designated date
  • Finish no later than -- finish on or before designated date
  • Must finish on -- finish on designated date
  • Finish no later than -- finish on or after designated date

4. Schedules

imp sems 1 of 5
IMP/SEMS (1 of 5)
  • Definition
    • Integrated master plan (IMS) -- US Air Force
    • System engineering master schedule (SEMS) -- US Navy
    • A list of major events with entry and exit criteria
    • Maps events, accomplishments, and entry and exit criteria to teams, contract, work breakdown structure (WBS), and contract line items
    • IMP and SEMS are major tools for obtaining early agreement with customer about what constitutes successful completion of an event
    • A key element of customer oversight

4. Schedules

imp sems 2 of 5
IMP/SEMS (2 of 5)

Example

Activity Event Team contract WBS CDRL

Number Accomplishment

Entry criteria

F Preliminary design review 3.4.2 1.8.1.2

F01 Requirements established Dsgn

F0101 Spec written Dsgn 3.4.4 1.8.1.2 B021

F0102 I/Fs written Dsgn 3.4.4 1.8.1.2 B022

4. Schedules

imp sems 3 of 5
IMP/SEMS (3 of 5)
  • IMP/SEMS guidelines
    • 1. Agree on technical and management approach before starting
    • 2. Take advantage of similarity. For example, many products will have exactly the same events, accomplishments, and criteria.

4. Schedules

imp sems 4 of 5
IMP/SEMS (4 of 5)
  • 3. Be wise in choosing events accomplishments, and criteria
    • Choose meaningful criteria that contractor can control success of
    • Choose measurable and achievable criteria
    • Limit the number of criteria to essentials
  • 4. Use IMP/SEMS to optimize the program.

4. Schedules

imp sems 4 of 51
IMP/SEMS (4 of 5)
    • 5. For example, some but not all products may have multiple build or prototypes
    • 6. Choose a standard numbering system that encompasses activities, accomplishments, entry criteria, and exit criteria
  • 7. Automate to ensure quality of IMP/SEMS
  • 8. Use company standards if available; seek experienced help

4. Schedules

ims seds
IMS/SEDS
  • Integrated master schedule (IMS) -- US Air Force
  • System engineering detailed schedule (SEDS) -- US Navy
  • A PERT built around IMS/SEMS events
  • Includes resources
  • Shows optimized schedule with no negative slack

4. Schedules

c scs 1 of 10
C/SCS (1 of 10)
  • Requirement on Government programs
    • DFAR clause 52.234-7001
    • Required description of C/SCS
    • Requires customer review
    • Requires access to all related records

4. Schedules

c scs 2 of 10
C/SCS (2 of 10)
  • Performance measurements
    • 1. Scheduled work -- budget representing the way work is scheduled. Also called budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS)
    • 2. Performed work -- the value of the work actually completed. Also called budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP)
    • 3. Actual cost of work -- The cost of doing the work completed. Also called actual cost of work performed (ACWP)
    • 4. Budget at complete (BAC) -- total planned work

4. Schedules

c scs 3 of 10
C/SCS( 3 of 10)
  • 5. Estimate at complete (EAC) -- actual cost to date plus estimate of work to be performed
  • 6. Schedule performance index (SPI)
    • BCWPcum/BCWScum
    • >1 ahead of schedule
    • <1 behind schedule
  • 7. Cost performance index (CPI) --
    • BCWPcum/ACWPcum
    • >1 ahead of schedule (over run)
    • <1 behind schedule (under run)

4. Schedules

c scs 4 of 10
C/SCS (4 of 10)

Example -- scheduled work

4. Schedules

c scs 5 of 10
C/SCS (5 of 10)

Example -- work performed (1 of 2)

4. Schedules

c scs 6 of 10
C/SCS (6 of 10)

Example -- work performed (1 of 2)

SVcum

Performed

Scheduled

4. Schedules

c scs 7 of 10
C/SCS (7 of 10)

Example 3 -- actual cost of work (1 of 2)

4. Schedules

c scs 8 of 10
C/SCS (8 of 10)

CVcum

Work performed

Actual cost

4. Schedules

c scs 9 of 10
C/SCS (9 of 10)
  • C/SCS work packages
    • Define increments of work
    • Should align with natural boundaries
    • About 3 months long
  • C/SCS milestones
    • Events that indicate work being accomplished; e.g. complete document, build board
    • Should be no more than a month apart

4. Schedules

c scs 10 of 10
C/SCS (10 of 10)
  • C/SCS techniques
    • Milestones -- work claimed by achieving milestone
    • Level of effort (LOE) work claimed based on interval of time

4. Schedules

5 homework 1 of 3
5. Homework (1 of 3)
  • 1. For the bathroom installation tasks on the following page
    • a. Label each task as one or more of the seven PBD activities and label as either task or LOE
    • b. Draw a Gantt chart showing the tasks
    • c. Show the PERT connectivity among the tasks
    • d. List at least one entry and exit criterion for each inspection
    • Note: assume each task is done by one person and assume that no task partial completes before waiting for a following task

5. Homework

homework 3 of 3
Homework (3 of 3)
  • 2. Determine BCWP, BCWS, ACWP, CV, EAC, CPI, SV, and SPI at the end of each day for the following problem.
    • Planned duration of task -- 4 days
    • Actual duration is five days
    • Planned spending rate per day -- $1000
    • Actual spending rate per day -- $700, $800, $1000, $1250, $1000
    • Percentage of total job completed per day -- 15%, 20%, 20%, 25%, 20%

5. Homework

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