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Agenda for Manage Activity. 1. Objective 2. People 3. Budget and schedule 4. Schedules 5. Homework. 1.Objective. Manage activity Manage tasks Completion criteria Pseudo-completion criteria. 1. Objective. Manage activity.

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Agenda for manage activity
Agenda for Manage Activity

  • 1. Objective

  • 2. People

  • 3. Budget and schedule

  • 4. Schedules

  • 5. Homework


1 objective
1.Objective

  • Manage activity

  • Manage tasks

  • Completion criteria

  • Pseudo-completion criteria

1. Objective


Manage activity
Manage activity

  • The manage activity establishes the development environment and controls development of the product

1. Objective


Manage tasks
Manage Tasks

schedule budget

people

Control cost & schedule

Provide

staff

facilities

tools

capital

communications

library

risks, TPPs

Control risk

issues

actions

Resolve issues & actions

Provide

environment

life cycle plan

configurations

changes

problems

Generate life cycle plan

Control change

1. Objective


Completion criteria
Completion Criteria

  • Complete when the product is sold to the customer

1. Objective


Pseudo completion criteria
Pseudo-Completion Criteria

  • None

1. Objective


2 people
2. People

  • Most important asset

  • Key people

  • Attributes

  • Finding people

2. People


Most important asset
Most important asset

  • Good people are the most important asset for successful product development

2. People


Key people 1 of 2
Key people (1 of 2)

  • Technologist -- knows the principles of what is to be designed

  • Designer -- knows how product can be build

  • Builder -- makes the product work

  • Customer interface -- interacts with customer

2. People


Key people 2 of 2
Key people (2 of 2)

  • Tester -- tests the product

  • Contract and administrative -- handles technical contract and money issues

  • Environmental expert -- knows requirements imposed by environment

  • Specialty expert -- knows reliability and maintainability

  • Supportability expert - knows supportability

2. People


Attributes
Attributes

  • Have proven experience in needed area

  • Take ownership

  • Skilled in technology or management

  • Can work in teams

  • Have big-picture perspective; aren’t parochial

2. People


Finding people
Finding people

  • Direct encounter

  • Reference from trusted colleagues

  • Functional organization

2. People


3 budget and schedule
3. Budget and schedule

  • Budget-and-schedule diagram

  • Work breakdown structure (WBS)

  • Events

  • Tasks and level of effort (LOE)

  • Resources

  • Schedules

  • Cost/schedule control system (C/SCS)

3. Budget and schedule


Budget and schedule diagram
Budget-and-schedule diagram

Contract

-- price

-- schedule

contract

CDRLs

Work breakdown structure

Tasks & LOE

Events

Budget & schedule control

Schedule

Resources

3. Budget and schedule


Wbs 1 of 4
WBS (1 of 4)

  • Definition

    • A product-oriented family tree composed of hardware, software, services, and data that completely defines a product

    • Usually applied at the top level (project level)

    • Defines the products to be produced and relates work to be accomplished to the end product

3. Budget and schedule


Wbs 2 of 4
WBS (2 of 4)

  • Government approach

    • MIL-STD-881A defines approach to WBS

    • Customer

      • Uses WBS to compare proposals against guidelines to determine if proposals are reasonable

      • Sometimes specifies the WBS

      • Requires Budget and schedule to be managed with respect to the WBS

3. Budget and schedule


Wbs 3 of 4
WBS (3 of 4)

  • Types

    • Contract WBS (CWBS) -- Complete WBS applicable to a particular contract or procurement action

    • Project WBS -- Contains all WBS elements related to the development or production of an item; formed by combining all CWBSs in a program

3. Budget and schedule


Wbs 4 of 4
WBS (4 of 4)

Aircraft system

Air vehicle

System ILS

System test

System I&T

Program management

Aircraft

Avionics

Mgt

SE

This example is typical of a MIL-ST-881A WBS,

but it does not align well with hierarchy of products

3. Budget and schedule


Events 1 of 2
Events (1 of 2)

  • Definition

    • Events are important occurrences

    • Examples include

      • Start of program

      • Reviews

      • Build completions

      • Test completions

      • Sell off

3. Budget and schedule


Events 2 of 2
Events (2 of 2)

  • Event characterization

    • Characterized by a set of entry and exit criteria

    • Examples of entry criteria include

      • Specification and interfaces complete

      • Design complete

    • Examples of exit criteria include

      • Agreement that design is adequate

      • Consensus that testing is adequate

3. Budget and schedule


Tasks and level of effort loe
Tasks and level of effort (LOE)

  • A task -- a piece of work. Budget and schedule control systems prefer the use of tasks as opposed to level of effort

  • Level of effort (LOE) -- work that is performed assuming one person produces a fixed amount of work

3. Budget and schedule


Resources 1 of 3
Resources (1 of 3)

  • Definition

    • Work and material assigned to a task

    • The amount of work assigned is determined using cost estimating techniques similar to those used to make the original proposal for the work

3. Budget and schedule


Resources 2 of 3
Resources (2 of 3)

  • Estimating Cost

    • Process of assigning resources to each task and each level of effort activity

3. Budget and schedule


Resources 3 of 3
Resources (3 of 3)

  • Techniques for estimating costs

    • Actual experience by the contractor

    • Rules of thumb such as $xx per line of code

    • Standard cost estimating guidelines like the Air Force guideline LS-24 for predicting cost of documentation

3. Budget and schedule


4 schedules
4. Schedules

  • Gantt chart

  • PERT

  • IMS/SEMS

  • IMP/SEDS

  • Budget and schedule system

4. Schedules


Gantt chart
Gantt chart

  • Definition

    • A simple schedule that shows events Vs time

    • May show interconnectivity of events

Buy material

Dig holes

String wire

Install gate

1 2 3 4

Day

4. Schedules


Pert 1 of 8
PERT (1 of 8)

  • Definition

    • A task based schedule with interconnectivity shown

    • Usually computerized to allow easy adjustment of events and durations.

    • Tools that support PERT include

      • Primavera

      • Microsoft Project

    • Allows computing metrics such as critical path and amount of slack (float)

    • Stands for program evaluation and review technique

4. Schedules


Pert 2 of 8
PERT (2 of 8)

  • PERT events

    • Can be added to PERT to fix points in time

    • Examples are

      • Start date

      • End date

      • Fixed milestones

4. Schedules


Pert 3 of 8
PERT (3 of 8)

  • PERT tasks

    • Represent blocks of labor

    • Normally have a duration

    • Are linked to a predecessor task or an event

    • May be involved in multiple links

4. Schedules


Pert 4 of 8
PERT (4 of 8)

PERT linkages

Finish-to-start

Event

Event

Start-to-finish

Event

Event

Event

Start-to-start

Event

Event

Finish-to-finish

Event

4. Schedules


Pert 5 of 8
PERT (5 of 8)

  • Definitions use in PERT

    • Total slack -- Amount of time by which a task can be delayed without delaying project completion

    • Free slack -- Amount of time by which a task can be delayed without delaying another task

    • Float -- Same as free slack

4. Schedules


Pert 6 of 8
PERT (6 of 8)

  • Critical path -- The path, or sequence, of tasks that must be completed to finish project on time

  • Constraint -- A limitation placed on the start or finish of a task

  • Dependency relationship -- The relationship between a dependent task and its predecessor

  • Resource allocation -- Assignment of quantifiable amount of work to a task

4. Schedules


Pert 7 of 8
PERT (7 of 8)

  • PERT task constraints

    • As soon as possible -- unconstrained

    • As late as possible -- delay without holding up project

    • Start no later than -- start on or before designated date

    • Must start on -- start on designated date

4. Schedules


Pert 8 of 8
PERT (8 of 8)

  • Start no earlier than -- start on or after designated date

  • Finish no later than -- finish on or before designated date

  • Must finish on -- finish on designated date

  • Finish no later than -- finish on or after designated date

4. Schedules


Imp sems 1 of 5
IMP/SEMS (1 of 5)

  • Definition

    • Integrated master plan (IMS) -- US Air Force

    • System engineering master schedule (SEMS) -- US Navy

    • A list of major events with entry and exit criteria

    • Maps events, accomplishments, and entry and exit criteria to teams, contract, work breakdown structure (WBS), and contract line items

    • IMP and SEMS are major tools for obtaining early agreement with customer about what constitutes successful completion of an event

    • A key element of customer oversight

4. Schedules


Imp sems 2 of 5
IMP/SEMS (2 of 5)

Example

Activity Event Team contract WBS CDRL

Number Accomplishment

Entry criteria

F Preliminary design review 3.4.2 1.8.1.2

F01 Requirements established Dsgn

F0101 Spec written Dsgn 3.4.4 1.8.1.2 B021

F0102 I/Fs written Dsgn 3.4.4 1.8.1.2 B022

4. Schedules


Imp sems 3 of 5
IMP/SEMS (3 of 5)

  • IMP/SEMS guidelines

    • 1. Agree on technical and management approach before starting

    • 2. Take advantage of similarity. For example, many products will have exactly the same events, accomplishments, and criteria.

4. Schedules


Imp sems 4 of 5
IMP/SEMS (4 of 5)

  • 3. Be wise in choosing events accomplishments, and criteria

    • Choose meaningful criteria that contractor can control success of

    • Choose measurable and achievable criteria

    • Limit the number of criteria to essentials

  • 4. Use IMP/SEMS to optimize the program.

4. Schedules


Imp sems 4 of 51
IMP/SEMS (4 of 5)

  • 5. For example, some but not all products may have multiple build or prototypes

  • 6. Choose a standard numbering system that encompasses activities, accomplishments, entry criteria, and exit criteria

  • 7. Automate to ensure quality of IMP/SEMS

  • 8. Use company standards if available; seek experienced help

  • 4. Schedules


    Ims seds
    IMS/SEDS

    • Integrated master schedule (IMS) -- US Air Force

    • System engineering detailed schedule (SEDS) -- US Navy

    • A PERT built around IMS/SEMS events

    • Includes resources

    • Shows optimized schedule with no negative slack

    4. Schedules


    C scs 1 of 10
    C/SCS (1 of 10)

    • Requirement on Government programs

      • DFAR clause 52.234-7001

      • Required description of C/SCS

      • Requires customer review

      • Requires access to all related records

    4. Schedules


    C scs 2 of 10
    C/SCS (2 of 10)

    • Performance measurements

      • 1. Scheduled work -- budget representing the way work is scheduled. Also called budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS)

      • 2. Performed work -- the value of the work actually completed. Also called budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP)

      • 3. Actual cost of work -- The cost of doing the work completed. Also called actual cost of work performed (ACWP)

      • 4. Budget at complete (BAC) -- total planned work

    4. Schedules


    C scs 3 of 10
    C/SCS( 3 of 10)

    • 5. Estimate at complete (EAC) -- actual cost to date plus estimate of work to be performed

    • 6. Schedule performance index (SPI)

      • BCWPcum/BCWScum

      • >1 ahead of schedule

      • <1 behind schedule

    • 7. Cost performance index (CPI) --

      • BCWPcum/ACWPcum

      • >1 ahead of schedule (over run)

      • <1 behind schedule (under run)

    4. Schedules


    C scs 4 of 10
    C/SCS (4 of 10)

    Example -- scheduled work

    4. Schedules


    C scs 5 of 10
    C/SCS (5 of 10)

    Example -- work performed (1 of 2)

    4. Schedules


    C scs 6 of 10
    C/SCS (6 of 10)

    Example -- work performed (1 of 2)

    SVcum

    Performed

    Scheduled

    4. Schedules


    C scs 7 of 10
    C/SCS (7 of 10)

    Example 3 -- actual cost of work (1 of 2)

    4. Schedules


    C scs 8 of 10
    C/SCS (8 of 10)

    CVcum

    Work performed

    Actual cost

    4. Schedules


    C scs 9 of 10
    C/SCS (9 of 10)

    • C/SCS work packages

      • Define increments of work

      • Should align with natural boundaries

      • About 3 months long

    • C/SCS milestones

      • Events that indicate work being accomplished; e.g. complete document, build board

      • Should be no more than a month apart

    4. Schedules


    C scs 10 of 10
    C/SCS (10 of 10)

    • C/SCS techniques

      • Milestones -- work claimed by achieving milestone

      • Level of effort (LOE) work claimed based on interval of time

    4. Schedules


    5 homework 1 of 3
    5. Homework (1 of 3)

    • 1. For the bathroom installation tasks on the following page

      • a. Label each task as one or more of the seven PBD activities and label as either task or LOE

      • b. Draw a Gantt chart showing the tasks

      • c. Show the PERT connectivity among the tasks

      • d. List at least one entry and exit criterion for each inspection

      • Note: assume each task is done by one person and assume that no task partial completes before waiting for a following task

    5. Homework



    Homework 3 of 3
    Homework (3 of 3)

    • 2. Determine BCWP, BCWS, ACWP, CV, EAC, CPI, SV, and SPI at the end of each day for the following problem.

      • Planned duration of task -- 4 days

      • Actual duration is five days

      • Planned spending rate per day -- $1000

      • Actual spending rate per day -- $700, $800, $1000, $1250, $1000

      • Percentage of total job completed per day -- 15%, 20%, 20%, 25%, 20%

    5. Homework


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