The Labor Movement
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The Labor Movement. The Rise of Unions CHAPTER 20 SECTION 4. By the late 1800s, harsh conditions led workers to organize:. Long hours. Low wages. Unsafe working conditions. Workers fight back:. Took days off. Slowed their work pace. Strikes. Knights of Labor 1869.

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The Labor Movement

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The labor movement

The Labor Movement

The Rise of Unions

CHAPTER 20 SECTION 4


The labor movement

By the late 1800s, harsh conditions led workers to organize:

Long hours

Low wages

Unsafe working conditions


The labor movement

Workers fight back:

Took days off

Slowed their work pace

Strikes


The labor movement

Knights of Labor 1869

Did not believe in strikes

Unskilled labor could not join

GOALS – shorter workday, end to child labor, equal pay for men/women


The labor movement

AFL (American Federation of Labor) 1886

(organized nationally)

Organized by Samuel Gompers

Open to skilled labor only


The labor movement

AFL: limited goals

Higher wages

8 hour workdays

Improved work conditions

Fought for collective bargaining


The labor movement

AFL…

Supported use of strikes

Collected dues to help pay workers during strikes

By 1910, 1.5 million members


The labor movement

Haymarket Riot 1886

Strike at McCormick factory in Chicago

Anarchists accused of starting riot

Anti-labor feeling in US leads to drop in membership


The labor movement

Homestead Strike, 1892

Homestead, PA, Carnegie’s Steel Mill.

Thousands of strikers clash with Private Security (Pinkertons)

Governor calls in National Guard to restore order, allow non-union workers into mill.

Weakens public support for unions even more, shows govt. will side with owners/management.


The labor movement

Pullman Strike 1894

Violent strike in Chicago, with railroad workers siding with Pullman employees

Railroad traffic stops in Chicago


The labor movement

Pullman Strike 1894…

Federal Judge orders injunction against the strikers

Strike leaders (Eugene V. Debs) jailed.


The labor movement

Weapons of Labor Unions:

  • Strikes

  • Boycotts

  • Picketing


The labor movement

Weapons of Employers:

  • Hiring of Scabs (replacement workers, strike-breakers)

  • Injunctions – court orders that forbid workers to strike, picket.

  • Lockout – workers cannot work until they agree to employers terms

  • Blacklists – troublemakers are targeted for non-employment by companies.


The labor movement

Women in the Labor Movement:

Women formed their own unions, but had no success

Mother Jones(Mary Jones) campaigned for reforms for workers, union membership

Triangle Fire in 1911 exposed working conditions for women


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911

Firemen’s ladders could not reach the top floors.


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Triangle Fire: March 1911


The labor movement

Owners: Blank & Harris


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