The Labor Movement. The Rise of Unions CHAPTER 20 SECTION 4. By the late 1800s, harsh conditions led workers to organize:. Long hours. Low wages. Unsafe working conditions. Workers fight back:. Took days off. Slowed their work pace. Strikes. Knights of Labor 1869.
The Rise of Unions
CHAPTER 20 SECTION 4
Unsafe working conditions
Took days off
Slowed their work pace
Did not believe in strikes
Unskilled labor could not join
GOALS – shorter workday, end to child labor, equal pay for men/women
Organized by Samuel Gompers
Open to skilled labor only
8 hour workdays
Improved work conditions
Fought for collective bargaining
Supported use of strikes
Collected dues to help pay workers during strikes
By 1910, 1.5 million members
Strike at McCormick factory in Chicago
Anarchists accused of starting riot
Anti-labor feeling in US leads to drop in membership
Homestead, PA, Carnegie’s Steel Mill.
Thousands of strikers clash with Private Security (Pinkertons)
Governor calls in National Guard to restore order, allow non-union workers into mill.
Weakens public support for unions even more, shows govt. will side with owners/management.
Violent strike in Chicago, with railroad workers siding with Pullman employees
Railroad traffic stops in Chicago
Federal Judge orders injunction against the strikers
Strike leaders (Eugene V. Debs) jailed.
Women formed their own unions, but had no success
Mother Jones(Mary Jones) campaigned for reforms for workers, union membership
Triangle Fire in 1911 exposed working conditions for women
Triangle Fire: March 1911
Firemen’s ladders could not reach the top floors.