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History & Development of Chinese Political Culture. Impact of Geography. 3 rd largest nation in the world (land surface) Supports the world’s largest population (1.3 billion). Impact of Geography. Demographics

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impact of geography
Impact of Geography
  • 3rd largest nation in the world (land surface)
  • Supports the world’s largest population (1.3 billion)
impact of geography1
Impact of Geography
  • Demographics

1.) Rugged terrain in the west, created population centers in the more favorable lands of the east

2.) Geographic/climatic differences splits north and south

impact of geography2
Impact of Geography

Illustration - Location of China’s Dynasties

impact of geography3
Impact of Geography

3.) China’s Isolation from the World

  • Mountain ranges, deserts, and oceans create an ‘island effect’ of China from the rest of the world
important time periods of china
Important Time Periods of China

1)Dynastic China

  • For over 3,600 years China was ruled by authoritarian emperors; people as subjects
important time periods of china1
Important Time Periods of China

1)Dynastic China

  • For over 3,600 years China was ruled by authoritarian emperors; people as subjects
  • Emperors’ legitimacy was established through the Mandate of Heaven (Right to Rule; God’s favor)
  • Government/Political change occurred according to the Dynastic Cycle (handout)
important time periods of china2
Important Time Periods of China

1)Dynastic China

  • Mandate of Heaven & the Dynastic Cycle
important time periods of china3
Important Time Periods of China

1)Dynastic China

  • The philosophy of Confucianism greatly shaped Chinese politics
  • Confucian Principles
    • Strong family loyalty
    • Ancestor worship
    • Respect of Elders by the Young
    • Order & Harmony
  • Emphasis on knowledge & acceptance
  • Democratic Centralism?

Confucius

Chinese thinker and social philosopher during the 6th century B.C.E.

important time periods of china4
Important Time Periods of China

2) Zhongguo – “The Middle Kingdom”

  • (Geographically China developed relatively isolated)
  • Middle Kingdom (central country) – the belief that China was the center of civilization
    • Resisted Imperialism movement
    • Foreigners were seen as barbarians/devils and had little to offer ‘superior’ China
    • Developed Strong Chinese Nationalistic Pride
    • Role in Foreign Exploration – Little/No Chinese Involvement
important time periods of china5
Important Time Periods of China

3) Republic of China

  • The Qing Dynasty was devastated by foreign influence, internal rebellions and famine.
  • Republic of China(1912-1949)
    • Chinese reformers ended the dynastic rule of China
    • 2 Different Directions (Chinese Civil War)
      • Chiang Kai-shek tried to transform China into a modern, democratic state
      • Mao Zedong tried to instill Communism in China
        • “The Long March”
    • After Japanese rule ended after WWII, Mao and the Communists eventually prevailed
important time periods of china6
Important Time Periods of China

4) People’s Republic of China (1949-1996)

  • The Communist PRC was led by Mao Zedong
  • How did Mao’s view of Communism differ from Marx’s and Lenin’s/Soviets’?
  • Mao’s Communist China was much more egalitarian than Soviet Russia and based on the strength of the peasant farmer/worker
important time periods of china7
Important Time Periods of China

4) People’s Republic of China (1949-1996)

  • 3 Phases
    • The Soviet Model (1949-1957)
      • U.S.S.R. supported Chinese Communism
      • Encouraged land reform (re-distribution) and 5-year plans of industrialization and collectivization
    • The Great Leap Forward (1958-1966)
      • Mao wanted Chinese independence from U.S.S.R. and wanted to create an egalitarian society
      • De-centralized power, ‘people’ in charge of government, emphasized agricultural development
    • Mao’s Great Leap Forward was ultimately unsuccessful
important time periods of china8
Important Time Periods of China

4) People’s Republic of China (1949-1996)

  • 3 Phases

3. The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)

      • An aggressive reform plan whose main goal was to remove all vestiges of old China
      • Included radical political, social, and economic change based on Mao’s Core Philosophies (handout)
mao zedong s core philosophies
Mao Zedong’s Core Philosophies

1.) Ethic of Struggle

  • Encouraged the people to actively pursue the values of socialism, something that would require struggle and devotion

2.) Mass Line

  • A line of communication between party leaders, members, and peasants. Teaching and listening was every level’s responsibility

3.) Collectivism

  • Valuing the good of the community above that of the individual

4.) Egalitarianism

  • Equality; opposite of traditional organization of Chinese/Confucian societies

5.) Self-Reliance

  • Don’t rely on government/elites, people should rely on their own talents to contribute
important time periods of china9
Important Time Periods of China

4) People’s Republic of China (1949-1996)

  • 3 Phases

3. The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)

      • An aggressive reform plan that included radical political, social, and economic change based on Mao’s Core Philosophies (handout)
        • Allowed for some market-oriented polices
        • Tried to remove all vestiges of old China, its hierarchical bureaucracy, and inequality
          • Ex.) Scholars worked in the fields, universities & libraries were destroyed; everyone received basic education (read & write) nothing more.
important time periods of china10
Important Time Periods of China

5) Deng Xiaoping’s Modernizations (1978-1997)

  • Turned around the Chinese economy through socialist planning and capitalist free market

“It doesn’t matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice”

  • Four Modernizations – focused on industry, agriculture, science, and the military
    • Open Door Trade Policy
    • Reforms in Education (reversal of Cultural Revolution)
    • Institutionalization of the Revolution
      • Restoring legal system and bureaucracy of ‘old China’; decentralizing government, infusion capitalism
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