Ethics of emerging technologies robots
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Ethics of Emerging Technologies Robots . University of Notre Dame Spring 2012. Plan. Types of robots and their importance Autonomy A utonomous lethal weapons Important areas of debate. Laws (Rules) of Robotics. Isaac Asimov

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Ethics of Emerging Technologies Robots

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Ethics of emerging technologies robots

Ethics of Emerging TechnologiesRobots

University of Notre Dame

Spring 2012


Ethics of emerging technologies robots

Plan

  • Types of robots and their importance

  • Autonomy

  • Autonomous lethal weapons

  • Important areas of debate


Laws rules of robotics

Laws (Rules) of Robotics

  • Isaac Asimov

    • Zeroth: A robot may not harm all humanity or, through inaction, allow all humanity to be harmed

    • First: A robot may not harm a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm

    • Second: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the first law

    • Third: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the previous laws

But this isn’t what we’re concerned with…


Definitions in a m ilitary context

Definitions(in a military context)

  • Robot

    • A powered machine that (1) senses (2) thinks[in a deliberative, non-mechanical sense], and acts

  • Autonomy

    • The capacity to operate in the real world environment without any form of external control, once the machine is activated and at least in some areas of operation, for extended periods of time

  • Ethics

    • More than normative issues, i.e., questions about what we should or ought to do, but also general concerns related to social, political, and cultural impact as well as risk arising from the use of robotics

The term “robot” is derived from the Czech word “robota” which means “servitude” or “drudgery” or “labor”


Types of robots

Types of Robots

  • Ground robots

  • Aerial robots

  • Marine robots

  • Space robots

  • Immobile/fixed robots

  • Sentry robots

  • Humanoid robots

  • Chemical robots or “blob-bots”

  • Biological-machine integrations or “cyborgs” (enhancement)

    • Continuum: Man/machine ----- Machine/man


Motivations for unmanned systems

Motivations for Unmanned Systems

  • Force multiplier

  • Expand the battlespace

  • Extend reach

  • Reduce casualties

  • Compelling military utility

  • Congressional deadlines

  • Continued unethical conduct by soldiers


Factors behind quest for more autonomy

Factors Behind Quest for More Autonomy

  • As robotic systems take on greater roles, risk of interruption of command links becomes a greater threat

  • As complexity and speed of systems and operations increase, rate of human decision making becomes a limiting factor

  • Personnel reduction


Dod needs for robotics ndia article

DOD Needs for Robotics(NDIA Article)

“…untethered from human masters”

“…robotic systems can save the Pentagon money”

“For us, everything is about cost benefit analysis right now”


Potential for autonomous unmanned system functions

Potential for Autonomous Unmanned System Functions

  • Sensor and other information fusion

  • Communications management

  • Optimal path planning

  • Collision avoidance

  • Trajectory motion and path following

  • Target identification and threat evaluation

  • Engagement decision

  • Weapons deployment

  • Abort decision making/response

  • Task scheduling

  • Cooperative tactics


Levels of autonomy

Levels of Autonomy

  • Remotely guided

  • Real time health/diagnosis

  • Adapt to failures and flight conditions

  • On board route re-plan

  • Group coordination

  • Group tactical re-plan

  • Group tactical goals

  • Distributed control

  • Group strategic goals

  • Fully autonomous systems


Some existing lethal autonomous systems

Some Existing Lethal “Autonomous” Systems

Patriot

Phalanx

Aegis

Sentry


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