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Human Reproduction. Review. Both males and females produce specialized sex cells called “gametes.” Each gamete contains ½ of the genetic information to form a new individual. Fertilization: Joining of egg and sperm. . The Male Reproductive System. Main function: produce and deliver sperm

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Review l.jpg
Review

  • Both males and females produce specialized sex cells called “gametes.”

  • Each gamete contains ½ of the genetic information to form a new individual.

  • Fertilization: Joining of egg and sperm.


The male reproductive system l.jpg
The Male Reproductive System

  • Main function: produce and deliver sperm

  • A sexually mature human male, produces millions each day.

  • Sperm are produced in the testes by meiosis (spermatogenesis).

  • Review (meiosis)


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Structure of Sperm

  • Tail- used for locomotion.

  • Midsection- contains mitochondria. Why?

  • Head- holds chromosomes and digestive enzymes which allow sperm to penetrate into the egg.



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The “Pathway” of Sperm fluid that nourishes sperm is made

Seminal Vesicle

Prostate Gland

Penis

Urethra

Sperm produced here

Testes

Vas Deferens from scrotum to urethra

Bulbourethral Gland

Epididymis

(sperm storage)


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The “Pathway” of Sperm fluid that nourishes sperm is made

  • 1. Testes (formation)

  • 2. Stored and nourished in epididymis

  • 3. Vas deferens

  • 4. Pick up fluids in three glands

    -Seminal vesicles provide fluid that “nourishes” sperm.

    - Bulbourethral gland and prostate gland create a fluid that makes sperm resistant to acid.

  • 5. Urethra

  • 6. Ejaculation (tube to bladder is blocked off by a valve)

    **Sperm + Glandular secretions = SEMEN.


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Female Reproductive Role fluid that nourishes sperm is made

  • The females reproductive role is to:

    1.) Make and release eggs.

    2.) Nourish the developing fetus.


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Female Anatomy fluid that nourishes sperm is made

Fallopian Tube

Fertilization occurs here

Egg formation

Ovary

Uterus

Bladder

Cervix

Urethra


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“The Menstrual Cycle” fluid that nourishes sperm is made

  • Eggs begin to mature in ovaries before a female is born.

  • All the eggs remain immature until puberty.

  • Each egg develops inside a “follicle.”

  • Usually only one egg makes it to maturity each month.


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“The Menstrual Cycle” fluid that nourishes sperm is made

  • Ovulation: egg bursts out of the follicle and is released, moving through fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized.

  • The uterus must be ready to accept a fertilized egg.

  • Different hormones help to control the menstrual cycle.


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Female Hormones fluid that nourishes sperm is made

1.) FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)

- Causes follicles to mature.

2.) LH (Leutinizing hormone)

- LH causes at least one follicle to burst open—

OVULATION


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Birth Control fluid that nourishes sperm is made

1.) Physical forms

- Condoms block the sperm from getting

to egg.

2.) Chemical forms

- “The pill.” Prevents release of FSH and

LH.

- Result = No ovulation. Normal menstrual

cycle proceeds.


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Fertilization and Development fluid that nourishes sperm is made

  • Zygote- Newly fertilized egg.

  • Once it begins to divide, it is called an embryo.

  • Embryo must “implant” itself into the uterine wall.


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The Placenta fluid that nourishes sperm is made

  • Transports materials back and forth to the embryo.

    • Oxygen – Carbon dioxide

    • Nutrients (carb’s, protein, fat)

    • Urea (liquid, cellular waste)

    • Antibodies


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Maternal Health fluid that nourishes sperm is made

  • The health of the baby depends on the health and activities of the mother.

  • Smoking, drugs, alcohol, radiation, and pathogens can all harm the fetus.

Spina bifida


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Trimesters fluid that nourishes sperm is made

Pregnancy is divided into 3, three month segments called “trimesters.”

  • 1st-All vital organs are formed

  • 2nd –Circulatory system functioning

  • 3rd – Eyes open


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Stopping of the Menstrual Cycle fluid that nourishes sperm is made

  • Between ages 45 – 55 ovulation and menstruation stop.

  • The shut down of ovarian and uterine cycles is known as menopause.


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