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Human Reproduction. Review. Both males and females produce specialized sex cells called “gametes.” Each gamete contains ½ of the genetic information to form a new individual. Fertilization: Joining of egg and sperm. . The Male Reproductive System. Main function: produce and deliver sperm

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Human Reproduction

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Human reproduction l.jpg

Human Reproduction


Review l.jpg

Review

  • Both males and females produce specialized sex cells called “gametes.”

  • Each gamete contains ½ of the genetic information to form a new individual.

  • Fertilization: Joining of egg and sperm.


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The Male Reproductive System

  • Main function: produce and deliver sperm

  • A sexually mature human male, produces millions each day.

  • Sperm are produced in the testes by meiosis (spermatogenesis).

  • Review (meiosis)


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Structure of Sperm

  • Tail- used for locomotion.

  • Midsection- contains mitochondria. Why?

  • Head- holds chromosomes and digestive enzymes which allow sperm to penetrate into the egg.


Male testicle has seminiferous tubules where sperm and a fluid that nourishes sperm is made l.jpg

Male testicle has seminiferous tubules where sperm and a fluid that nourishes sperm is made


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The “Pathway” of Sperm

Seminal Vesicle

Prostate Gland

Penis

Urethra

Sperm produced here

Testes

Vas Deferens from scrotum to urethra

Bulbourethral Gland

Epididymis

(sperm storage)


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The “Pathway” of Sperm

  • 1. Testes (formation)

  • 2. Stored and nourished in epididymis

  • 3. Vas deferens

  • 4. Pick up fluids in three glands

    -Seminal vesicles provide fluid that “nourishes” sperm.

    - Bulbourethral gland and prostate gland create a fluid that makes sperm resistant to acid.

  • 5. Urethra

  • 6. Ejaculation (tube to bladder is blocked off by a valve)

    **Sperm + Glandular secretions = SEMEN.


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Female Reproductive Role

  • The females reproductive role is to:

    1.) Make and release eggs.

    2.) Nourish the developing fetus.


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Female Anatomy

Fallopian Tube

Fertilization occurs here

Egg formation

Ovary

Uterus

Bladder

Cervix

Urethra


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“The Menstrual Cycle”

  • Eggs begin to mature in ovaries before a female is born.

  • All the eggs remain immature until puberty.

  • Each egg develops inside a “follicle.”

  • Usually only one egg makes it to maturity each month.


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“The Menstrual Cycle”

  • Ovulation: egg bursts out of the follicle and is released, moving through fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized.

  • The uterus must be ready to accept a fertilized egg.

  • Different hormones help to control the menstrual cycle.


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Female Hormones

1.) FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)

- Causes follicles to mature.

2.) LH (Leutinizing hormone)

- LH causes at least one follicle to burst open—

OVULATION


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Birth Control

1.) Physical forms

- Condoms block the sperm from getting

to egg.

2.) Chemical forms

- “The pill.” Prevents release of FSH and

LH.

- Result = No ovulation. Normal menstrual

cycle proceeds.


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Fertilization and Development

  • Zygote- Newly fertilized egg.

  • Once it begins to divide, it is called an embryo.

  • Embryo must “implant” itself into the uterine wall.


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The Placenta

  • Transports materials back and forth to the embryo.

    • Oxygen – Carbon dioxide

    • Nutrients (carb’s, protein, fat)

    • Urea (liquid, cellular waste)

    • Antibodies


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Maternal Health

  • The health of the baby depends on the health and activities of the mother.

  • Smoking, drugs, alcohol, radiation, and pathogens can all harm the fetus.

Spina bifida


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Trimesters

Pregnancy is divided into 3, three month segments called “trimesters.”

  • 1st-All vital organs are formed

  • 2nd –Circulatory system functioning

  • 3rd – Eyes open


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Stopping of the Menstrual Cycle

  • Between ages 45 – 55 ovulation and menstruation stop.

  • The shut down of ovarian and uterine cycles is known as menopause.


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