C limate
1 / 56

C limate - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

C limate. What is Climate?. Climatology - study of earth’s surface climate and the factors that affect the past, present and future climate changes. Climate describes . Average Precipitation Patterns. U.S. Precipitation Patterns. Normals.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' C limate' - zeheb

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
C limate


What is climate
What is Climate?

  • Climatology - study of earth’s surface climate and the factors that affect the past, present and future climate changes.


  • Data is collected at 1000’s of locations is compiled for over 30 years to establish Normalsor standard values

  • Must be used with caution Why?

  • 1) Weather conditions may differ from Normals

  • 2) Normals not intended to describe usual weather condition

  • 3) Normals only apply to specific areas


  • Amount of solar radiation varies place to place. Why? Earth is tilted on its axis and it affects how the sun’s rays strike the earth

  • 23.5 S to 23.5 N - Tropics - receives the most sun . Temperature warm year round

  • 23.5 N- 66.5 N

  • 23.5 S- 66.5 S

  •  Temperate Zone - Temperature Moderate

Temperate zone 23 5 n 66 5 n and 23 5 s 66 5 n
Temperate Zone23.5 N – 66.5 N and 23.5 S – 66.5 N

Latitudes cont 66 5 n and 66 5 s polar zone sun strikes at low angles cold temperatures
Latitudes cont……. 66.5 N and 66.5 S - polar Zone Sun strikes at low angles/Cold temperatures.

Topography effects
Topography Effects

  • H2O heats up and cools down more slowly than land. Coastal regions are warmer in winter and cooler in the summer than inland areas of similar latitudes.

  • Temperature in lower atmosphere decreases with altitude.

  • Orographic lifting - air rises over mountain, rising air cools and condenses then drops moisture.

  • Air Masses

  • 2 courses of weather movement interactions of air masses - air masses affect climate tool

  • Region and Origin

  • Caused by difference in the amount of solar radiation. Average weather conditions in or near air masses are fairly similar to conditions. Exhibited by air masses.

Climate classification
Climate Classification

  • How are climates classified?

  • Based on the climate and precipitation and vegetation

  • Continental

  • Polar

  • High elevations

  • Tropical Climate - 600 cm of rainfall

  • Heat + rain = rainforest under the influence of maritime tropical air

  • Transition zones border the rainy tropics

  • Tropical wet distinct African Savannas

  • Tropical dry dry season

Dry climates
Dry Climates

  • Dry Climates - cover 30 % or earth - largest climate zone - where most of the deserts are located: Sahara, Gobies, Australian

  • Continental Tropical dominates

  • -low precipitation

  • -vegetation scarce

  • -intense solar radiation

  • -high rate of evaporation - few clouds

  • -2 subtypes: arid region (deserts)

  • Semi and steppes

Mild climates
Mild Climates

  • 3 subtypes

  • - Humid subtropical climate - influenced by subtropical high pressure systems over oceans Southeast of the U.S.

  • -Marine west coast - dominated by the constant inland flow of

  • air from ocean- mild winters and cool summers

  • -Mediterranean - Italy, Spain - summers warm - lack of cool ocean currents in the Mediterranean Sea

Polar climates
Polar Climates

  • Coldest regions on earth -

  • mean temperature of warmest month is lest than 10°C -

  • precipitation is low -

  • cold air does not hold cold moisture.

  • Amount of heat radiates from earth is low thus there are no convection currents necessary to release precipitation.

  • Variations - high elevations, includes parts of Andes Mountains of South America

Heat islands climate is warmer than the surrounding rural areas
Heat Islands-climate is warmer than the surrounding rural areas.

climate is warmer than the surrounding rural areas.

  • Ice Ages - Earth surface was totally covered by vast sheets of ice. Average global temperature decreased by 5°C sparked the advancement of ice sheets. Interglacial Intervals = alternating of cold/warm periods.

  • We are now in a interglacial period. Glaciers covered from east to west and as far south as Indiana.

  • Retreat - scoured the Finger Lakes of New York / Great Lakes - Michigan


  • Seasons - short term climate changes caused by regular variations in daylight, temperature and weather patterns. Summer - North Pole titled toward sun - Northern Hemisphere / Southern Hemisphere - winter

El nino cont
El Nino Cont…….

  • Warm currents that occasionally develops off the western coast of South America normally.

  • No reason - Trade winds weaken - allows warm winters from the Western Pacific surge eastward towards the South American coast

  • Convection currents strengthen - Northwest coast of South America becomes warm and wetter.

  • Jet Stream moves south. Weather system take a southern track - storms in California and Gulf Coast

El nino cont1
El Nino Cont……

  • + positive effect - strong upper winds keep the tropical disturbances down

  • Change can be Natural Past climate changes - found studying tree rings, ice core samples, fossils and radioactive carbon.

La nina characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the equatorial pacific
La Nina- Characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

  • a. La Niña often causes drought conditions in the western Pacific; flooding in northern South America; mild wet summers in northern North America, and drought in the southeastern United States.

La nina
La Nina in the Equatorial Pacific

Solar activity sunspots
Solar Activity- Sunspots in the Equatorial Pacific

  • Low sunspot activity - Maunder Minimum (“Little Ice Age”) cold dramatic conditions.

  • High sunspot activity - Temperatures are warmer - Earth’s orbit - shape of the earth’s elliptical orbit changes and becomes more elliptical than circular.

  • If the orbit elongates the earth is closer to the sun. Temperature is cooler.

  • The earth’s tilt is 25.3° and it tends to vary from 22.1° to 24.5° every 41,000 years.

  • Changes in the tilt causes seasons to be more severe - winters-warmer, summers cooler. Colder weather causes ice sheets to expand causes ice age

Sun spots
Sun Spots in the Equatorial Pacific

Earth wobble
Earth Wobble in the Equatorial Pacific

  • Earth wobbles as it spins - axis point towards North Star “Polaris”. When earth wobbles, axis tilts towards star “Vega” when winter extends.

Volcanic a ctivity
Volcanic the Southern Hemisphere is the closest and enjoying summer.ACTIVITY

  • Tiggers climatic change

  • Dust suspended in the atmosphere for several years blocking out the incoming solar radiation.

  • Lowering global temperatures

  • High active periods of volcanos, the planet tends to have cooler temperatures

Human factor to climate change
Human Factor to Climate Change the Southern Hemisphere is the closest and enjoying summer.

  • Greenhouse Effect

  • Retention of heat by the atmosphere by the accumulation atmospheric gases called Greenhouse gases

  • water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.

  • Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth; without them, Earth's surface would average about 33°C colder than the present average of 14 °C (57 °F).[

  • Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has contributed to a 40% increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 397 ppm, despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle.

  • Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (i.e., emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of carbon based fuels, principally wood, coal, oil, and natural gas.[7]

Global warming
Global warming the Southern Hemisphere is the closest and enjoying summer.