Research-based Instructional Strategies For Disabled Students. Presented By Dr. Shelia Martin February 18, 2009. If you have a room of students with different clothes sizes, how can you presume that when preparing a lesson that “one size fits all?”.
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Research-based Instructional Strategies For Disabled Students
Dr. Shelia Martin
February 18, 2009
If you have a room of students with different clothes sizes, how can you presume that when preparing a lesson that “one size fits all?”
“Corrective instruction is never a matter of applying a formula of methods or activities. . . Understanding why is fully as important as knowing how.” (Jean Gillett, 1990)
Vocabulary knowledge is directly connected to reading comprehension.
(Anderson & Nagy, 1991; Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1998; Becker, 1997; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998)
“Overall, differences in the amount of independent reading, lack of strategies to learn words from content, and diffuse word knowledge appear to be the most critical obstacles to vocabulary development for students with disabilities.”
Stahl & Shiel, 1999
2. Personal or Individual Factors
What do we know about the use of instructional strategies with struggling learners?
Because of several essential aspects of effective strategy instruction, certain behaviors were noted (Allington,2001; Pressley, et.al 2001):
The teacher provided support initially.
The teacher gradually moved students to greater independence in using the strategy.
The teacher developed high expectation of self-monitoring and sustained independence resulted in intrinsically motivated students.
PL No.107-110). To accomplish this goal NCLB has set specific conditions such as
(1) preparation, training, and recruitment of high-quality teachers;
(2) language instruction for students with limited English proficiency and migrant children;
(3) innovative, research-based instructional programs; and
(4) accountability for educational outcomes.
From grade 2 on, weaker readers benefit from instruction about how to use multiple comprehension strategies (Taylor, Graves & Van Den Broek, 2000).
Very little new learning occurs when students are relegated to continue to work on skills/tasks already mastered or skills that were perceived as too difficult.
Effective teachers affect student achievement through the variety of instructional strategies that are used as interventions.
Differentiated Instruction to Access the Curriculum and/or Standards
Focus on Individual Student Learning through Differentiated Instruction
Selects a topic from the curriculum
Designs instructional activities
Designs and gives an assessment
Gives grade or feedback
Moves on to new topic
Selects content standards to plan instruction
Designs and gives an assessment (pretest) through which students demonstrate the knowledge and skills to meet the standards
Decides what learning opportunities students will need to learn
Plans instruction to assure that each student has adequate opportunities to learn
Uses data from assessment to give feedback, reteach, or move to next level
In standards-based instruction, the teacher must plan backwards from the required content standards to the assessments then to the lessons that will be needed for students to achieve at that level.
Lessons designed for student success increases student engagement rates and student learning (Allington, 2001)
Can minimize referrals to special education
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