Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone. 4/27 2010 蘇炯瑞. Wang, Y., and J. Xu , 2010: Energy production, frictional dissipation, and maximum intensity of a numerically simulated tropical cyclone .
Wang, Y., and J. Xu, 2010: Energy production, frictional dissipation,
and maximum intensity of a numerically simulated tropical cyclone.
J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 97–116.
r Intensity of ais the radius, rmis the radius of the eyewalland roughly the radius of
maximum wind (RMW)
r0is an outer radius far away from the RMW
ρ is the air density of the subcloudlayer Tsis the SST|V| is the near-surface wind speeds0* is the saturation entropy of the ocean surface
sb is the entropy of subcloud-layer airCk is the exchange coefficient of the entropy flux from the ocean
CDis the surface drag coefficient
ε is the thermodynamic efficiency of the heat engine, which is defined as ;T0 is the outflow-layer air temperature.
The maximum Intensity of awind speed, namely, the MPI:
“m” Indicates that the value is evaluated near the RMW
Maximum wind speed can be calculated by specifying a value of the relative humidity of the subcloud layer outside of rm, SST, and the ratio of the exchange and drag coefficients.
Psmin Intensity of a 913.5hPa
After Intensity of a168 h of integration in the control experiment
15 km Intensity of a
From a regular hurricane structure
to an annular hurricane structure.(Knaff et al.2003)
Vmax Intensity of a 68.2m/s
averaged between 144 and 192 h
Total energy production rate (PROD)
PD: Azimuthal mean energy production
SH: Sensible heat flux
LH: Latent heat flux
DHT: Column-integrated dissipative heating rate
RAD: Column-integrated heating-cooling rate
Frictional Intensity of adissipation rate (DISS)
Ds: Azimuthal mean frictional dissipation
Developing stage Intensity of a
Area-integrated & averaged between 144-192h
D : horizontal diffusion
F : vertical mixing
DH : the dissipative heating rate
RH : the Newtonian cooling rate
1.5h Intensity of a
Replace A with θe :
Lateral and top
13.5% low Intensity of a
26 hPa high
7.5 km Intensity of a