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This work investigates the effect of summer weather conditions on the environmental impact of an Open Cycle Gas Turbine in Abu Dhabi (UAE) using an exergoenvironmental analysis. The results are used to suggest measures for reducing the calculated impact. Actual operational data are verified with simulation data using commercial software. Compared to standard weather conditions, the summer weather conditions decrease the overall exergetic efficiency of the plant by 4.3% and increase the total environmental impact per generated KWh by 7.9%. The addition of a heat recovery steam generator could increase the net power output and decrease the total environmental impact of the plant. The main contributor to the environmental impact of exergy destruction is the combustor. Summer conditions increase this impact by 21.5%. The compressor has the second highest environmental impact, increased by 14.6% for summer conditions. A process control system for continuous measurement of exhausted O2 and CO can help to reduce the excess air and, consequently, the associated environmental impact. This may also decrease the power required by the compressor. Lastly, a cooling system for the ambient air may also help to increase the power output of the plant by decreasing the power required by the compressor.

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slide1

EFFECT OF SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS ON THE

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF A POWER PLANT IN THE UAE

Students: Mohamed Mohamed Alhammadi& Mubarak Haji Alblooshi

Advisor: Zin Eddine Dadach

Collaboration: Dr. Fontina Petrakopoulou (University Carlos III, Spain)

slide2

CONTENT

I.

POWER GENERATION PLANTS & GLOBAL WARMING

II.

WHY EXERGY ANALYSIS FOR POWER PLANTS?

III.

EXERGY DESTRUCTION & ENVIRONMENT

IV.

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

V.

EXERGY ANALYSIS:

A) EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON THE POWER PLANT

B) EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON EACH EQUIPMENT

C) DETECTING TECHNICAL PROBLEMS

V. EXERGOENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS:

A) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT PER KWH OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCED

B) EFFECTS OF EACH EQUIPMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

C) DETECTING SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

VI. RECOMMENDATIONS

slide3

BECAUSE CO2 EMISSIONS RESULT PRIMARILY FROM THE

COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUELS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION

IS AT THE CENTER OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE DEBATE

Global CO2 emissions

80% of Power generation plants use fuel combustion

Energy consumption: 12Gtoe/year , CO2 emissions= 35Gt/year

slide4

EXCESS COMBUSTION OF FOSSIL FUELS IS RESPONSIBLE

FOR THE HIGH CONCENTRATION OF CO2 IN ATMOSPHERE

WE REACHED 400 PPM

slide5

Closing water window

CO2 absorbs energy in wavelengths (8-15 μ-meters) partially closing

the “water vapor window” through which heat radiated by the surface

would normally escape to space : Less heat escapes into space

slide7

AS POWER DEMAND CONTINUES TO RISE

130

120

Others

110

100

90

Industry

80

70

Power

60

50

40

30

20

Transport

10

0

1971

2002

2030

IMMEDIATE ACTIONS ARE NEEDED

TO CUT CO2EMISSIONS

Increase

SWITCH TO

Power plants

slide8

LOCATING INEFFICIENCIES IN POWER PLANTS:

NOT HEAT LOSS (1STLAW) BUT IRREVERSIBILITIES IN THE

PROCESS (2ndLAW)

Due to irreversibilities, the compressor consumes more work

and the turbine produces less work than that of the ideal

Brayton cycle.

Another difference between the real cycle and the ideal

Brayton cycle is that there is pressure drop in the combustor.

slide9

Exergy analysis (2ndlaw) is ideally suited to locate technical problems

because irreversibilities are detected as exergy destructions.

Exergy destructions are additive, enabling attribution of the losses to

particular plant components. Inefficiencies of plant located in the

equipment which has the highest contribution to exergy destruction

slide10

WHY EXERGY EFFICIENCY IS IMPORTANT

FOR THE ENVIRONMENT ?

EXERGY DESTROYED IN THE PLANT IS THE

PART OF EXERGY OF THE FUEL TO BECOME

CO2 EMISSIONS

slide11

HOW TO MEASURE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT FOR

POWER PRODUCTION ?: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

slide12

Founded in 1988 by Federal Decree, the Higher Colleges of

Technology (HCT) has 17 campuses throughout the United Arab

Emirates. It is the largest higher education institution in the UAE.

slide13

Active Learning

Strategies:

Industrial projects, lab

experiments, work

placement,…

slide14

INDUSTRIAL PROJECT BASED ON WORK

PLACEMENT

Mubarak Haji Alblooshi

STUDY THE EFFECTS OF SUMMER WEATHER

CONDITIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT OF A POWER PLANT IN ABU DHABI

Mohamed AlHammadi

slide15

TWO MAIN REASONS FOR THIS

INDUSTRIAL PROJECT

POWER PLANTS IN THE UAE ( AND GLOBALLY) RELEASE MORE THAN

30% OF THE TOTAL CO2 EMISSIONS.

LARGEST CONTRIBUTION TO GLOBAL WARMING

DESIGN CONDITIONS (T=150C , RH=60%) OF THE POWER PLANT

(EUROPE WEATHER CONDITIONS) ARE VERY DIFFERENT FROM SUMMER

WEATHER CONDITIONS (T=430C, RH=50%) IN ABU DHABI

EXTRA CO2 EMISSIONS DURING SUMMER SEASON

slide16

POWER PLANT UNDER INVESTIGATION

OCGT (Open Cycle Gas Turbine)

0.3 Gt/year

Ex:460 MW

EL:167MW

72 Burners

0.76 Mt. CO2/y

Natural Gas

Ex:160 MW

ED:132 MW

21 stages

5 stages

slide17

slide18

EXERGY ANALYSIS FOR SUMMER WEATHER

CONDITIONS (T= 430C AND RH= 50% )

COLLECT DATA FROM THE PLANT

(BY STUDENT IN WORK PLACEMENT)

1) FUEL COMPOSITION, FLOW RATE AND (P,T)

2) AIR COMPOSITION, FLOW RATE AND (P, T).

3) FLOW, P,T OF AIR LEAVING COMPRESSOR

4) POWER GENERATED BY THE TURBINE

5) P,T, COMPOSITION, FLOW OF FLUE GAS BEFORE AND

AFTER TURBINE

slide19

CALCULATING EXERGY OF THE STREAMS

For each component of a stream: (ex)T= (ex)TM+ (ex)CH

TM: Thermo-mechanical part: difference in (p,T) between stream and dead state

CH: Chemical part: difference in composition between stream dead state

Total specific exergy of the streams 1,2,3,4 and fuel are calculated:

?+ ?.?. ??.??(??)

?T = ℎ − ℎ0 − T0(? − ?0) + ??.??ℎ

• h0,t0, s0, x0are the values for the dead state. the selected dead state is

fresh air therefore: the exergy of stream 1 (figure) is equal to zero.

slide20

EXERGY ANALYSIS FOR DESIGN WEATHER

CONDITIONS (T=150C, RH=60%): ASPEN HYSYS V8.8

• SOAVE-REDLICH-KWONG (SRK) EQUATION OF STATE.

• TO FIT THE EXIT TEMPERATURE OF THE COMPRESSOR, THE ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY

OF THE COMPRESSOR WAS ESTIMATED EQUAL TO 0.8.

• TO FIT THE EXIT TEMPERATURE OF THE TURBINE, THE TURBINE ISENTROPIC

EFFICIENCY WAS ESTIMATED EQUAL TO 0.88.

• ASSUMPTIONS: MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE TURBINE AND COMPRESSOR

EQUAL TO 0.98 AND THE GENERATOR EFFICIENCY EQUAL TO 0.99.

• VALIDATION OF SIMULATION RESULTS: THE NET OUTPUT OF THE POWER PLANT

UNDER DESIGN CONDITIONS IS 160 MW. SIMULATION RESULTS INDICATE THAT

THE NET POWER PRODUCED AT DESIGN CONDITIONS IS 163 MW. THE RELATIVE

SHIFT IS 1.9%. THIS RESULT PRESENTS A VALIDATION OF THE SIMULATION.

slide21

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON POWER PLANT

NET POWER OUTPUT

160 MW (DESIGN CONDITIONS)

& DECREASING BY 0.2 MW /0C

NWO ==W(T)- W(K)

Figure 1: Temperature decreases the net power output of the

plant.

slide22

EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON POWER PLANT

EXERGY EFFICIENCY

EE= 34.6% , LOSING 0.05% /0C

ED?????+ EL,total

EF,total

(??)?????= 1 −

Figure 2: Temperature decreases exergy efficiency of the plant.

slide23

EVALUATING EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE

ON EACH EQUIPMENT

 Compressor:

(ex)D,K= WK- ma .(ex2-ex1)

 Combustor:

(ex)D,C= ma.ex2+mf.(ex)f– mfg. ex3

 Gas turbine:

(ex)D,T = mfg. (ex4-ex3) - WT

slide24

EFFECTS ON EXERGY DESTRUCTION IN

EACH EQUIPMENT

Figure 3: Temperature increases the exergy destruction in the

combustor and compressor but decreases the exergy

destruction in the turbine.

slide25

EFFECTS ON EXERGY EFFICIENCY

OF EACH EQUIPMENT

Figure 4: Temperature decreases the exergy efficiency of the

combustor and increases the exergy efficiency of the turbine.

Small negative effects on the compressor.

slide26

RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS

EXERGY ANALYSIS FOR SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS

Equipment k

??,?

(MW)

??,?(%) ??,?(MW)

??,?

(??)

yD,k

(%)

EEk

(%)

Compressor

Combustor

Turbine

OCGT

17.44

98.15

13.08

128.67

13.55

76.28

10.17

100.00

208.80

657.81

393.08

466.97

190.84

559.64

380.0

160.40

3.73

21.0

2.80

26.53

91.60

85.10

96.60

33.10

SIMULATION RESULTS FOR DESIGN CONDITIONS

??,?

(MW)

14.94

80.92

29.12

125.0

??,?

(%)

11.90

64.70

23.30

100.00

??,?(MW) ??,?(??)

Equipment k

yD,k

EEk(%)

Compressor

Combustor

Turbine

OCGT

183.80

633.30

391.92

466.97

166.35

551.10

362.8

168.6

3.20

17.33

6.24

26.77

92.00

87.40

92.60

34.60

slide27

EFFECTS OF SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS

ON THE POWER PLANT

ALMOST THE SAME PERCENTAGE OF THE EXERGY OF FUEL IS

DESTROYED (yD,k) IN THE PLANT DURING SUMMER SEASON (26.53 %)

AND UNDER DESIGN WEATHER CONDITIONS ( 26.77%).

HOWEVER, SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS DECREASE THE EXERGY

EFFICIENCY OF THE PLANT BY 4.3 % FROM 34.6 % TO 33.1%

slide28

LOCATING TECHNICAL PROBLEMS USING

EXERGY DESTRUCTION OF THE FUEL (YD)

 COMBUSTOR:

 MAIN CONTRIBUTOR TO THE EXERGY DESTRUCTION OF

THE FUEL (YD=17.33%) FOR DESIGN CONDITIONS.

 SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS INCREASE IT BY 21.2 %

FROM 17.33% TO 21.0%,

 TURBINE:

SECOND CONTRIBUTOR TO EXERGY DESTRUCTION OF

THE FUEL (YD=6.24%) FOR DESIGN CONDITIONS

DUE TO IMPORTANT POSITIVE EFFECTS OF HIGHER

TEMPERATURES ON THE WORK PRODUCED BY TURBINE.

THE SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS DECREASE IT BY

55%, FROM 6.24% TO 2.8%.

COMPRESSOR

 LEAST CONTRIBUTOR TO THE EXERGY DESTRUCTION OF

THE FUEL (YD=3.2%) FOR DESIGN CONDITIONS.

 SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS INCREASE ITS EXERGY

DESTRUCTION RATIO BY 16.5%, FROM 3.20% TO 3.73%.

slide29

21.2%

+16.5%

-55.1%

slide30

slide31

BASED ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS

DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF POWER PLANTS ON ENVIRONMENT IN

SIMPLER TERMS FOR MANAGEMENT DECISIONS.

slide32

SELECTED VALUES FOR THE ECO-INDICATOR 99 FOR CO2 AND

DEPLETION OF FOSSIL FUEL

• GLOBAL WARMING (KG CO2-EQ.)/KWH): The specific

environmental impact of CO2 for eco-99 is selected as

??=5.454 MPTS/KG.

???2

• DEPLETION OF FOSSIL FUEL:

?????= 3.5 MPTS/MJ

• REFERENCE:

PETRAKOPOULOU F., TSATSARONIS G., MOROSUK T., 2012. “ADVANCED

EXERGOENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A NEAR-ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANT WITH

CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION”, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 46,

PP. 3001-3007.

slide33

STREAM-LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Equipment

Environmental impact balance

Auxiliary

equations

Compressor

?1=0

( fresh air)

?2.?2= ?1.?1+ ??.??

Combustor

?3.?3

= ?2.?2+ ?????.?????+ ?CO2

?????and

???2

[literature]

??

??

Turbine

?4.?4+ ???.???= ?3.?3

?4= ?3

??= ???

slide34

SOLVING THE ABOVE EQUATIONS

Summer conditions

Standard conditions

Stream

??(mPts/MJ)

??(mPts/s)

??(mPts/s)

??

(mPts/MJ)

WK

WT

1

5.32

1110.60

5.42

992.50

5.32

2021.60

5.42

1959.10

0

0

0

0

2

5.82

1110.60

5.97

993.10

Fuel

3.50

1634.40

3.50

1634.40

3

5.14

2879.00

5.01

2761.00

4

5.14

856.10

5.01

797.50

slide35

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF EACH EQUIPMENT

Equipment

Environmental impact

rate of fuel

??,?(mPts/s)

Environmental impact

of product

??.?(mPts/s)

Compressor

??.??

?2.?2− ?1.?1

Combustor

?3.?3

?2.?2+ ?????.?????

+ ???

??

Turbine

?3.?3− ?4.?4

???.???

slide36

SOME DEFINITIONS

 POLLUTANT FORMATION DETERMINED BY CO2EMISSIONS :

??= ???2

??.(???2,???− ???2,??)

???

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RELATED TO EXERGY DESTRUCTION: ??,?= ??,?.???

EXERGY LOST BY THE EXHAUST GAS: ??,???= ?4.?4

??,?? ??,?+ ??

??,?? ??,?

??,?=

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF EQUIPMENT

NEGLECTING (??): EFFECTS OF THE PLANT SITE ON THE ENVIRONMENT

??,?

??,?

??,?=

HIGHER VALUES MEANS HIGHER IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

slide37

RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS

EXERGOENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR SUMMER CONDITIONS

??

??+ ??

Equipment

??

??,?

??,?

??,?

(mPts/s)

??

??,?

(%)

??,?+ ??

(mPts/s)

(mPts/MJ)

(mPts/s)

(mPts/MJ)

(mPts/s)

Compressor

Combustor

Turbine

OCGT

5.32

4.38

5.14

3.50

5.82

5.14

5.32

16.40

92.78

429.90

67.36

450.34

0

0

0

0

92.78

563.27

67.36

1440.40

9.4

17.4

3.5

367.00

133.97

0

133.97

856.10

EXERGOENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR STANDARD CONDITIONS

??

??+ ??

Equipment

??

??,?

??,?

??,?

(mPts/s)

??

??,?

(%)

??,?+ ??

(mPts/s)

(mPts/MJ)

(mPts/s)

(mPts/MJ)

(mPts/s)

Compressor

Combustor

Turbine

OCGT

5.42

4.37

5.00

3.50

5.97

5.00

5.42

15.20

80.97

353.60

145.60

437.50

0

0

0

0

80.97

487.60

145.60

1389.50

10.1

14.4

8.4

335.00

133.97

0

133.97

818.00

slide38

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT BY KWH OF ELECTRICITY

PRODUCED BY THE POWER PLANT

??+??,???)

????=(??,??? ??,???+ ????+ ????

??,???

• ??,?????,???: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DEPLETION OF THE FUEL

??.(???2,???− ???2,??) : ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF CO2 EMISSIONS

??= ???2

????

• +??,???

: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF EXHAUST GAS (LOST EXERGY)

: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE POWER PLANT (NEGLECTED)

????

slide39

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT BY KWH OF

ELECTRICITY PRODUCED (EIE)

SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS (T= 430C AND RH= 50%):

40.3 MPTS/KWH (EXERGY DESTRUCTION ONLY)

59.0 MPTS/KWH ( 46% MORE WITH EXERGY LOSS)

STANDARD WEATHER CONDITIONS (T=150C, RH=60%):

37.8 MPTS/KWH (EXERGY DESTRUCTION ONLY)

54.7 MPTS/KWH ( 45% MORE WITH EXERGY LOSS):

SUMMER CONDITIONS INCREASE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT BY

KWH PRODUCED BY THE POWER PLANT BY: 6.6 % EXERGY

(DESTRUCTION ONLY) & 7.9% (INCLUDING EXERGY LOSS)

slide40

EFFECTS OF SUMMER WEATHER

CONDITIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCED (ED:

EXERGY DESTRUCTION, EL: EXERGY LOSS)

+9.9%

+6.6%

slide41

LOCATING SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT OF THE PLANT USING VALUES OF (rB)

COMBUSTOR

 HIGHEST CONTRIBUTION TO THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT OF THE FINAL PRODUCT (rB=14.4%), WHILE

 SUMMER

CONTRIBUTION BY 20.8%.

WEATHER

CONDITIONS

INCREASE

THIS

COMPRESSOR:

 SECOND

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE FINAL PRODUCT (rB=10.1%).

HIGHEST

CONTRIBUTION

TO

THE

TOTAL

 UNLIKE THE COMBUSTOR, THE DATA INDICATE THAT SUMMER

WEATHER CONDITIONS DECREASE THIS CONTRIBUTION BY

7.4%.

 TURBINE:

 LOWEST CONTRIBUTION TO THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT OF THE FINAL PRODUCT (rB=8.4%), WHILE

 SUMMER

CONTRIBUTION BY 58.3%.

WEATHER

CONDITIONS

DECREASE

THIS

slide42

21.2%

+20.8%

-6.7%

-58.3%

+16.5%

-55.1%

slide43

slide44

1stRECOMMENDATION: ENERGY CONSERVATION

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION BEFORE PROFITS

EXCESSIVE USE OF FUEL COMBUSTION

slide45

TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS

• RECOVERABLE LOSS WHICH CAN BE RECTIFIED BY WATER WASHING OR, MORE

THOROUGHLY, BY MECHANICALLY CLEANING THE COMPRESSOR & TURBINE

BLADES AND VANES AFTER OPENING THE UNIT.

• NON-RECOVERABLE LOSS: THIS LOSS IS CAUSED BY REDUCTION IN COMPONENT

EFFICIENCIES, REPLACEMENT OF AFFECTED PARTS ARE RECOMMENDED DURING

INSPECTION INTERVALS.

slide46

RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON THE

EXERGOENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

I.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT BY KWH OF ELECTRICITY :

32% DUE TO EXERGY LOSS:

FIND A WAY TO USE HEAT OF FLUE GAS

II. FURNACE HAS LARGEST ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:

REDUCE EXERGY DESTRUCTION IN COMBUSTOR

III. SUMMER CONDITIONS INCREASE ENVIRONMENTAL

IMPACT OF THE POWER PLANT BY 9.5% :

REDUCE EFFECTS OF HIGH SUMMER TEMPERATURES

slide47

I. USING HEAT OF EXHAUST GAS LEAVING THE GAS TURBINE

POWER PLANT UNDER INVESTIGATION IS AN OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE AND THE

TEMPERATURE OF THE EXHAUST GAS IS AROUND 886 K.

GENERATOR (HRSG) SHOULD BE ADDED TO PRODUCE EXTRA POWER WITH STEAM TURBINE.

A HEAT RECOVERY STEAM

 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT BY KWH OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCED (EIE)

 FOR COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS IN EUROPE = 27 MPTS/KWH.

 OUR VALUES FOR DESIGN CONDITIONS ARE RESPECTIVELY:

 37.8 MPTS/KWH (EXERGY DESTRUCTION ONLY):+40%

 54.7 MPTS/KWH (WITH EXERGY LOSS): +103%

slide48

II. FUEL SPECIFICATIONS

A NUMBER OF FACTORS INCLUDING AUTO-IGNITION, FLAME TEMPERATURE,

EMISSIONS AND STABILITY DEPEND ON FUEL SPECIFICATIONS.

IT IS CRITICAL TO SUCCESSFULLY OBTAINING A FUEL STREAM THAT MEETS

THE ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER (OEM) SPECIFICATIONS.

slide49

II. PROCESS CONTROL STRATEGY FOR BETTER

COMBUSTION AND MINIMUM EXCESS AIR

• REPLACING THE FEEDFORWARD CONTROL (RATIO CONTROL) BY A FEEDBACK

CONTROL WITH CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF BOTH O2 AND CO LEAVING

THE COMBUSTOR COULD PROVIDES THE NEEDED INFORMATION FOR EFFECTIVE

COMBUSTION FOR SIGNIFICANT ENERGY SAVINGS & MINIMIZING EXCESS AIR.

slide50

III. COOLING AMBIENT AIR

COMPARED TO DESIGN CONDITIONS, SUMMER WEATHER CONDITIONS INCREASE

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE POWER PLANT BY 9.5% .

A THERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION STUDY IS NEEDED IN ORDER TO SELECT

BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT COOLING SYSTEMS IN ORDER TO DECREASE THE NEGATIVE

EFFECTS OF THE HIGH TEMPERATURES OF THE SUMMER IN ABU DHABI (UAE) :

EXAMPLE : FOGGING COOLING

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