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Population Ecology

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Population Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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organism. population. community. ecosystem. biosphere. Population Ecology. Life takes place in populations. Population group of individuals of same species in same area at same time. rely on same resources interact interbreed.

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Presentation Transcript
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organism

population

community

ecosystem

biosphere

Population Ecology

life takes place in populations
Life takes place in populations
  • Population
    • group of individuals of same species in same area at same time
  • rely on same resources
  • interact
  • interbreed

Population Ecology: What factors affect a population?

why population ecology
Why Population Ecology?
  • Scientific goal
    • understanding the factors that influence the size of populations
      • general principles
      • specific cases
  • Practical goal
    • management of populations
      • increase population size
        • endangered species
      • decrease population size
        • pests
      • maintain population size
        • fisheries management
          • maintain & maximize sustained yield
factors that affect population size
Factors that affect Population Size
  • Abiotic factors
    • sunlight & temperature
    • precipitation / water
    • soil / nutrients
  • Biotic factors
    • other living organisms
      • prey (food)
      • competitors
      • predators, parasites, disease
  • Intrinsic factors
    • adaptations
characterizing a population

1970

1966

1960

1964

1965

1943

1951

1961

Equator

1958

1937

1956

Immigration

from Africa

~1900

1970

Characterizing a Population
  • Describing a population
    • population range
    • pattern of spacing
      • density
    • size of population

range

density

population range
Population Range
  • Geographical limitations
    • abiotic & biotic factors
      • temperature, rainfall, food, predators, etc.
    • habitat

adaptations topolar biome

adaptations torainforest biome

changes in range

aspen

oak, maple

sequoia

white birch

15,000 years ago

glacial period

Present

Alpine tundra

Alpine tundra

Spruce-fir forests

3 km

Mixed conifer forest

Spruce-fir forests

Woodlands

2 km

Elevation (km)

Mixed conifer forest

Grassland,

chaparral, and

desert scrub

1 km

Woodlands

Grassland, chaparral,

and desert scrub

0 km

Changes in range
  • Range expansions & contractions
    • changing environment

result of competition

at risk populations

Devil’s hole

pupfish

Iiwi

Hawaiian

bird

Iriomote cat

Socorro

isopod

New Guinea

tree

kangaroo

Catalina

Island

mahogany

tree

Northern white rhinoceros

At risk populations
  • Endangered species
    • limitations to range / habitat
      • places species at risk
population spacing
Population Spacing
  • Dispersal patterns within a population

Provides insight into the environmental associations & social interactions of individuals in population

clumped

random

uniform

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