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Lexicography and computer science: a harmless drudgery?. Judith Knapp ([email protected]) Andrea Abel ([email protected]) European Academy Bozen - Bolzano. Content. Learner‘s Difficulties and Needs Pedagogical Lexicography Today – A Short Overview

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lexicography and computer science a harmless drudgery

Lexicography and computer science: a harmless drudgery?

Judith Knapp ([email protected])

Andrea Abel ([email protected])

European Academy Bozen - Bolzano

content
Content
  • Learner‘s Difficulties and Needs
  • Pedagogical Lexicography Today – A Short Overview
  • ELDIT – Linguistic-lexicographic Background & Live Demo
  • Datamodel
  • Implementation
  • Content Authoring
  • ELDIT and Word Manager
  • ELDIT and the TreeTagger
  • Literature
  • Conclusion
slide3

Problems with foreign

language use

Problems

Decoding

Encoding

Paradigmatic

level

Semantic

level

Syntagmatic

level

Learners‘difficulties and needs

slide4

PROBLEMS WITH SYNONYMS

AND SIMILAR WORDS

convegno

riunione

incontro

assemblea

(meeting)

Assemblea condominiale (condominium meeting)

assemblea d‘affari (business meeting)

slide5

DIFFICULTIES WITH WORD COMBINATIONS

Collocations

fixed combinations of words (arbitrary, unpredictable):

Grammatical Constructions

formed according to the rules of grammar, partly arbitrary:

  • Ex:
  • to brush one‘s teeth
  • lavarsi i denti
  • sich die Zähne putzen
  • Ex:
  • to ask sb sth
  • chiedere qlco a qlcu
  • jemanden etwas fragen
slide6

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Metalanguage

Abbreviations

Technical

terms

Other

„codes“

Descriptive

language

Learners‘difficulties and needs

Problems with foreign

language use

Problems

Decoding

Encoding

Syntagmatic

level

Semantic

level

Paradigmatic

level

slide7

ABBREVIATIONS

Italian

agg.

art.

tr.

determ.

pron.

femm.

ant.

volg.

region.

mus.

sociol.

German

Adj.

Art.

tr.

best.

Pron.

w./Fem.

veralt.

vulg.

landsch.

Mus.

Soziol..

(adjective)

(article)

(transitive verb)

(definite article)

(pronoun)

(feminine)

(archaic)

(vulgar)

(regional)

(music)

(sociology)

slide8

TECHNICAL TERMS

aggettivo

articolo

ausiliare

transitivo

determinativo

pronome

femminile

antico

volgare

dialetto

musica

sociologia

Adjektiv

Artikel

Hilfsverb

transitiv

bestimmt

Pronomen

weiblich

veraltet

vulgär

landschaftlich

Musik

Soziologie

grammar

language

variation

slide9

OTHER „CODES“

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) or other transcription systems

focus

shake

chiesa [chiè-sa]

.

Syntactic information (valency) provided in coded or abbreviated form

Ex.: (a) geben; [...] Vt j-m etw. g (Langenscheidt)

(b) give 2 Vnn (Cobuild)

Vn

(c) dare 17. N-V-N1 (N2/a N3) (Blumenthal/ Rovere)

slide10

UNDERSTANDING THE DEFINITION...

„Ich muß im Lexikon nachschlagen, um herauszufinden, was eine Jungfrau ist. [...] Im Lexikon steht, Jungfrau, Frau (gewöhnlich jung), welche sich in einem Zustand unangetasteter Keuschheit befindet und in diesem verbleibt.

Jetzt muß ich unangetastet und Keuschheit nachschlagen, und alles, was ich hier finde, ist, daß unangetastet das Gegenteil von angetastet bedeutet, und Keuschheit bedeutet keusch, und das bedeutet frei von gesetzeswidrigem geschlechtlichen Interkursus. Jetzt muß ich Interkursus nachschlagen [...] und ich weiß nicht, was das bedeutet, und ich bin es einfach leid, in dem schweren Lexikon von einem Wort zum anderen geschickt zu werden wie ein Vollidiot, und das alles nur, weil die Leute, die das Lexikon geschrieben haben, nicht wollen, daß unsereins etwas erfährt.

Ich will doch nur wissen, wo ich hergekommen bin, aber wenn man jemanden fragt, sagen sie einem, man soll jemand anderen fragen, oder sie schicken einen von Wort zu Wort.“

(McCourt 1998: 412 – 413, dt. Übersetzung)

slide11

Formal

Problems

Search

Presentation

Learners‘difficulties and needs

Problems with foreign

language use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems

Decoding

Encoding

Metalanguage

Syntagmatic

level

Abbreviations

Semantic

level

Paradigmatic

level

Technical

terms

Other

„codes“

Descriptive

language

slide12

Problems with searching

  • Time consuming
    • - 2000 pages
    • - Small characters
    • - Difficult metalanguage
  • Complex expressions
      • - Collocations (“Zähne putzen”)
      • - Idiomatic expressions
slide13

Problems with presentation

  • Limited space
  • Linear presentation order
  • Organisation of the dictionary
  • Organisation of the entries
slide16

Solutions

Learners‘difficulties and needs

Problems with foreign

language use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems

Decoding

Encoding

Formal

Problems

Metalanguage

Syntagmatic

level

Search

Presentation

Abbreviations

Semantic

level

Paradigmatic

level

Technical

terms

Other

„codes“

Descriptive

language

slide17

Pedagogical Dictionaries

  • Target Group: language learners
  • Functions: encoding & decoding
  • General characteristics:
      • (usually) monolingual
      • selective regarding macrostructure (limited number of entries )
      • exhaustive regarding microstructure (detailled information for each entry)
slide18

Elektronisches Lern(er)wörterbuch Deutsch-Italienisch

ELDIT

Dizionario elettronico per apprendenti Italiano-Tedesco

http://www.eurac.edu/eldit

slide20

Three main characteristics:

1. typologically innovative:

  • a monolingual dictionary (German or Italian): definitions, collocations, idiomatic expressions, examples … in the target language

&

  • a bilingual dictionary (German and Italian): translation equivalents, explanations in L1
  • „cross-lingual“ dictionary German-Italian
slide21
2. well defined target group:
  • beginners – intermediate students (Waystage level A1 up to Threshold level B1):basic vocabulary: ~ 3.000 entry words for each language
  • addressed to the linguistic layman:limited use of meta-language, abbrevations and symbols
slide22
3. designed solely for computer use:
  • not a transformation of a paper dictionary into a electronic dictionary
  • exploits the possibilities of the electronic medium (multimedia & hypertext)
  • modular structure: contains detailled informations which you usually find in different types of dictionaries
slide23

1) Avoiding

2) Explaining

Electronic

search

possibilities

1) Avoiding

2) Explaining

Hypertext

and

hyperlinks

1) Sound-files

2) Verb patterns

1) Definitions

2) Examples

3) ...

1) Simple

2) Use of L1

3) Multimedia

Learners‘difficulties and needs

Problems with foreign

language use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems

Formal

Problems

Decoding

Encoding

Metalanguage

Syntagmatic

level

Search

Presentation

Abbrevations

Semantic

level

Paradigmatic

level

Technical

terms

Other

„codes“

Solutions

Descriptive

language

slide24

SOLUTIONS ...

Descriptive language

1. Simple

2. Multiple descriptions

3. Hypertext

slide25

1. Simple=

a) Limited defining vocabulary

b) Easy syntax

d) Avoid circularity

slide26

2. Multiple descriptions=

a) Definitions

b) Lexicographic examples

c) Word fields

d) L1 (semantic equivalents)

[e) images]

slide27

Hypernyms

Coordinates

Kinds of ...

das Gebäude

Semantic information:

1. Definitions

2. Examples

3. Word fields

4. Equivalents

das Haus, die Villa, das Schloss, die Wohnung ...

das Hochhaus, das Bauernhaus ...

1.a) Ein Haus ist ein Gebäude, in dem Menschen wohnen. casa

Sie wohnt mit ihrer Familie in einem zweistöckigen Haus am Stadtrand.

b) Ein Haus ist das Gebäude, in dem man ständig lebt und in das man

regelmäßig zurückkehrt. Es ist der Ort, wo man daheim ist.

Sie verlässt das Haus jeden Morgen um sieben Uhr, um zur Arbeit

zu fahren.

2. Das Haus sind die Bewohner eines Hauses (1a). casa

....

Semantic Level:

slide28

3. Hypertext=

a) Click on unknown words inside the definition

b) Click on the semantic equivalents

c) Click on any information you‘re interested in

slide29

1) Collocations

2) Examples

3) ...

Learners‘difficulties and needs

Problems with foreign

language use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems

Formal

Problems

Decoding

Encoding

Metalanguage

Syntagmatic

level

Search

Presentation

Abbrevations

Semantic

level

Paradigmatic

level

Technical

terms

1) Avoiding

2) Explaining

Electronic

search

possibilities

Other

„codes“

Solutions

1) Avoiding

2) Explaining

Descriptive

language

Hypertext

and

hyperlinks

1) Sound-files

2) Verb patterns

1) Definitions

2) Examples

3) ...

1) Simple

2) Use of L1

3) Multimedia

slide30

Syntagmatic level:

1. Collocations

2. Idiomatic Expressions

3. Verb Valency

slide31

Verb Valency

  • Definition: “Valency refers to the capacity of a verb to take a specific number and type of arguments”(Bianco)
  • Theoric origin: dependency grammar (Lucien Tesnière)
slide32

Verb Valency: a problem for learners and researchers

  • verb constructions are largely arbitrary and unpredictable
  • number of obligatory and facultative elements
  • distinction between transitivity and intransitivity
slide33

The description of verb valency in different dictionary types

  • General monolingual dictionaries
slide34

The description of verb valency in different dictionary types

2. Special mono- and bilingual verb valency dictionaries

slide35

The description of verb valency in different dictionary types

3. (Monolingual) learners‘ dictionaries

description of verb valency in eldit

N-V-N1-(N2) v.tr. (2 argom.) Vt/i (etw.) (über j-n/etw.) r.

Description of Verb Valency in ELDIT

I. Learner friendly description:

Explicit way of describing verb valency

description of verb valency in eldit1
Description of Verb Valency in ELDIT

II. Multimedia:

Visualization of information to support comprehension

(colors and animations instead of meta-language)

description of verb valency in eldit2
Description of Verb Valency in ELDIT
  • III. Semiotic didactics:
  • Functions of the different colors:
  • they indicate the parts of the sentence
  • they show which parts of the verbs belong together
  • correspondence between patterns and examples
description of verb valency in eldit3
Description of Verb Valency in ELDIT
  • IV. Additional explanations for the learner:
  • Visible notes to describe semantic restrictions
  • Variations for realizing single parts of the sentence
slide40

Lexical fields

Three dimensional

graphics

Learners‘difficulties and needs

Problems with foreign

language use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems

Decoding

Encoding

Formal

Problems

Metalanguage

Syntagmatic

level

Search

Presentation

Abbreviations

Semantic

level

Paradigmatic

level

Technical

terms

1) Avoiding

2) Explaining

Other

„codes“

Electronic

search

possibilities

Solutions

1) Avoiding

2) Explaining

Descriptive

language

1) Collocations

2) Examples

3) ...

Hypertext

and

hyperlinks

1) Sound-files

2) Verb patterns

1) Definitions

2) Examples

3) ...

1) Simple

2) Use of L1

3) Multimedia

slide41

PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS

  • Word field theory:

„Ein Wortfeld ist eine Gruppe von Wörtern, die inhaltlich einander eng benachbart sind und die sich vermöge Interdependenz ihre Leistungen gegenseitig zuweisen.“ (Trier 1968/1973: 189, späte Def.)

  • Existing Projects

- WordNet (GermaNet, Italian WordNet)

- Alexia

- Kirrkirr

paradigmatic relations in eldit
Paradigmatic relations in ELDIT
  • Ca. 150 words per language
  • interactive graphic representation
  • spacial arrangement and colors for the representation of paradigmatic lexical relations
  • explicit description of the semantic relations between the lexical units and the lemma (no metalanguage)
  • definitions and examples for describing similarities/differences of meaning, register, authentic context
slide43
Lexical fields in ELDIT

Type of meaning relations:

  • hierachical relations (hyperonymy/hyponymy; holonymy/meronymy)
  • non-hierarchical relations (similarity: synonyms, quasi-synonyms … - contrast: gradable and nongradable antonyms; converse terms)
slide47

Learners‘difficulties and needs

Problems with foreign

language use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems with

dictionary use

Problems

Decoding

Encoding

Formal

Problems

Metalanguage

Syntagmatic

level

Search

Presentation

Abbreviations

Semantic

level

Paradigmatic

level

Technical

terms

1) Avoiding

2) Explaining

Other

„codes“

Electronic

search

possibilities

Solutions

1) Avoiding

2) Explaining

Descriptive

language

1) Collocations

2) Examples

3) ...

Hypertext

and

hyperlinks

1) Sound-files

2) Verb patterns

1) Definitions

2) Examples

3) ...

Three dimensional

graphics

1) Simple

2) Use of L1

3) Multimedia

other modules
Other modules
  • Flexion
  • Word family
  • N.B.
implementation
Implementation
  • Hierarchical structured data
  • Many changes were expected
  • Communication with linguists
use of xml
Use of XML
  • XML und XML-Editor
    • Hierarchic Structure
    • Communication with Linguists
  • Java-Servlet Technology
  • DXML or JDOM
  • Dynamic Generation of HTML
content authoring
Content Authoring
  • Content Authoring
    • Difficult
    • Time consuming
    • Error prone
  • In ELDIT:
    • Innovative Presentation
    • Efficient Interface

(Real World System)

    • Research of Linguists
efficient authoring interface1
Efficient Authoring Interface
  • Semi-structured Data
  • Automatic full-structuring
  • Automatic enriching
slide59

Automatic full-structuring

<example>

<w>Meine</w>

<w>Eltern</w>

<w style="emphasized">haben</w>

<w style="emphasized">das</w>

<w style="emphasized">Haus</w>

<w>vor</w>

<w>50</w>

<w>Jahren</w>

<w style="emphasized">gebaut</w>

<w>.</w>

</example>

<prebasuf>

<article>die</article>

<praefix>Be</praefix>

<basis>haus</basis>

<suffix>ung</suffix>

</prebasuf>

slide60

Automatic Enriching

  • By using Computational Linguistics tools
  • WordManager
  • TreeTagger
  • PhraseManager, WordNet, Parser, …
slide61

<derivation>

<prebasuf>die Be_haus_ung</prebasuf>

<translation>la dimora</translation>

</derivation>

slide62

<derivation id="de.n.haus.1.deriv2">

<pattern id="de.n.haus.1.deriv2.patt0" base="Behausung" ctag="N" lexref="">

<article base="der" ctag="art" lexref="de.g.articles.1.item1">die</article>

<praefix explref="de.prae.h.be">Be</praefix>

<basis>haus</basis>

<suffix explref="de.suff.h.ung">ung</suffix>

</pattern>

<translation id="de.n.haus.1.deriv2.trans0">

<w id="de.n.haus.1.deriv2.trans0.w0"

type="content"

base="il" ctag="art"

lexref="it.g.articles.1.item2">la</w>

<w id="de.n.haus.1.deriv2.trans0.w1"

type="content"

base="dimora" ctag="N"

lexref="it.n.dimora.1">dimora</w>

</translation>

</derivation>

slide63

ELDIT and WordManager

  • WordManager
  • WM Transducers
  • WordManager in ELDIT
slide64

WordManager - 1992

  • System for reusable morphological dictionaries
  • Information of a word about
    • Flexion (Declination and Conjugation)
    • Word formation (Derivation and Composition)
    • Orthography (Old and new for German)
  • German, Italian, English
wm in eldit
WM in ELDIT

Search (Lemmatizer)

slide70

ELDIT and TreeTagger

  • ELDIT Text Corpus
  • Development
  • Tagging
  • Manual Corrections
development
Development
  • MSWord

(Goethe Institut of Milan)

  • HTML
  • Simple XML
tagging
Tagging
  • POS – tagging (→ TreeTagger)
  • XML with links
  • Iterative Correction by frequency of unlinked words
corrections
Corrections
  • Old German spelling rules valid until 1998
  • The Italian verb “sono” (they are) was always tagged with “sonare” (=suonare, make music) instead of with “essere” (to be).
  • The verb “sia” (he may be) was always recognized as a conjunction and tagged with “sia” (as well as) instead of with “essere” (to be).
  • Many conjugated forms of “avere” were tagged with “riavere” (to get something back) instead of with “avere” (to have).
  • Many conjugated forms of “andare” were tagged with “riandare” (to go back) instead of with “andare”.
  • Abbreviated forms of Italian words (such as “bel”, “vuol”, “pur”, “fin”) were tagged as nouns and with the original form as lemma.
  • Some Italian words which exist both as nouns and as past participles (such as the word “successo” (the success, it happened)) were tagged with the wrong word class.
literature
Literature
  • http://www.eurac.edu/about/collaborators/JKnapp/index.htm

→ Publications

(some linguistic ones, too)

→ PhD-Thesis

(Abel Andrea – Uni Innsbruck;

Judith Knapp – Uni Hannover)

conclusion

syntagmatisch, paradigmatisch, pragmatisch, Polysemie, Homographie, Homonymie, Holonymie, Hyponymie, Hyperonymie, semiotisch, ludativ, …

Fileserver,Webserver,

Datenmodell, HTTP request,

Client, Protokoll, Port, …

+∞

∫√∂u∆v

- ∞

Goal based scenarios, blended learning …

TEI, CES, NLP, Lemmatizing, POS-Tagging …

Conclusion
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