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GPC 355 Special Education. The Developmentally Challenged And the Gifted Unit 9. Dean Owen, Ph.D., LPCC METU-NCC Spring 2014. Plan for the day. Some basic definitions.

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GPC 355 Special Education

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Gpc 355 special education

GPC 355

Special Education

The

Developmentally Challenged

And the

Gifted

Unit 9

Dean Owen, Ph.D., LPCC

METU-NCC

Spring 2014


Plan for the day

Plan for the day


Gpc 355 special education

Some basic definitions

Developmental disability is a term that refers to a variety of conditions that result from severe chronic conditions that are either mental and/or physical.

  • Developmental disabilities impact individuals in a variety of ways including:

  • Language

  • Mobility

  • Learning

  • Self-help

  • Independent living

Developmental disabilities can be detected early on, and do persist throughout an individual's lifespan.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) causes autism and intellectual disability among boys.

Down syndrome is a condition in which people are born with an extra chromosome. Normally a person is born with 46 chromosomes. But however if they're born with Down syndrome, it means they have an extra copy of one of these chromosomes. This extra copy changes the body’s and brain’s normal development and causes mental and physical struggles for the individual.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. FASDs are 100% preventable if a woman does not drink alcohol during pregnancy.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood.

Mental retardation is defined as an IQ below 70 along with limitations in adaptive functioning and onset before the age of 18 years.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Mental Retardation (MR) or Intellectual disability (ID)

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Please take a few minutes and write down 5 adjectives that might describe someone with “low IQ”


Gpc 355 special education

Who is “gifted”…….?

Who is “developmentally challenged”…..?


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Mental Retardation (MR) or Intellectual disability (ID)

This general learning disability is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood

Characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning (IQ<70) and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors.

It was historically defined as an intelligence quotient score under 70.

Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals' functional skills in their environments.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Normal intellectual Development Equation

Intellectual Development

=

Life Experience

Genetic Endowment

+

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Mental Retardation (MR) or Intellectual disability (ID)

Intellectual disability is subdivided into

non-syndromic intellectual disability (NSID), in which intellectual deficits appear without other abnormalities. (Cultural-Familial Retardation)

syndromic intellectual disability (SID), in which intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral conditions.

Down’s Syndrome,

Cerebral Palsy,

Autism,

Fragile X Syndrome,

trauma,

etc.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

non-syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits appear without other abnormalities. (Cultural-Familial Retardation)

This form of ID is thought to result from socio-cultural deprivation….particularly during the developmental period.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Cultural-Familial Retardation

Poverty

Isolation

Limited/Poor education

NSID

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Organic Causes of ID (SID)

Genetic

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Organic Causes of ID

Prematurity/

trauma

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Organic Causes of ID

Malnutrition

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Organic Causes of ID

Infections

Toxins

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Organic Causes of ID

Ionizing Radiation

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Adaptive Behaviors

In addition to a measured IQ < 70 the second defining feature of intellectual disabilities (ID, formerly mental retardation) is the limited development of life skills. These important skills enable us to live in a safe and socially responsible manner. These skills are collectively referred to as adaptive functioning.

  • Adaptive functioning is affected by three basic skill sets.

  • Conceptual skills. This includes reading, numbers, money, time, and communication skills.

2. Social skills. These skills help us to get along well with others. These skills include understanding and following social rules and customs; obeying laws; and detecting the motivations of others in order to avoid victimization and deception.

3. Practical life skills. These are the skills needed to perform the activities of daily living. This includes feeding, bathing, dressing, occupational skills, and navigational skills.

Source: Seven Counties Mental Health Center


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Specific ID Causes

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Environmental Exposure to Toxins

Medical Causes of Intellectual Disabilities: Infections and Brain Damage

Genetic Causes of Intellectual Disabilities:

Down SyndromeFragile X Syndrome

Williams SyndromeAngelman Syndrome

Bardet-Biedl SyndromeLaurence-Moon Syndrome

Cockayne SyndromeCri du Chat Syndrome

Cornelia De Lange Syndrome (CdLS)Tay-Sachs disease

Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)

Psychiatric Causes of Intellectual Disabilities

Source: Seven Counties Mental Health Center


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

ID Classifications

Source: Seven Counties Mental Health Center


Gpc 355 special education

ID

Gifted


Gpc 355 special education

Classification Schemes for IQ


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Common problems of individuals with ID

Impulse control

Frustration tolerance

Low Self-Esteem

Limited ability to make cause/effect associations

Source: Seven Counties Mental Health Center


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Fragile X syndrome (FXS),

(Martin–Bell syndrome), is a genetic syndrome that is the most widespread single-gene cause of autism and inherited cause of intellectual disability especially among boys.

It results in a spectrum of intellectual disabilities ranging from mild to severe as well as physical characteristics such as an elongated face, large or protruding ears, and large testes (macro-orchidism), and behavioral characteristics such as stereotypic movements (e.g. hand-flapping), and social anxiety.

Prominent characteristics of the syndrome include an elongated face, large or protruding ears, and low muscle tone.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Fragile X syndrome (FXS),

Frequency: 1 in 4,000 males

1 in 8,000 females

Cause: Mutations in the FMR1 gene cause fragile X syndrome.

The FMR1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called fragile X mental retardation 1 protein, or FMRP. This protein is critical in the proper development of nerve synapses.

Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine.


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Fragile X syndrome (FXS),

Symptoms:

Speech and Language delay by age 2.

Most males and 1/3 of females are intellectually disabled.

Anxiety and hyperactive behavior such as fidgeting or impulsive actions.

They may have attention deficit disorder (ADD), which includes an impaired ability to maintain attention and difficulty focusing on specific tasks.

1/3 have features of autism spectrum disorders that affect communication and social interaction.

Most males and about half of females with fragile X syndrome have characteristic physical features that become more apparent with age. These features include a long and narrow face, large ears, a prominent jaw and forehead, unusually flexible fingers, flat feet, and in males, enlarged testicles (macroorchidism) after puberty.

Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine.


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Down syndrome (DS)

Down's syndrome,

(Trisomy 21)

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Down's syndrome,

DS

Genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

Physical growth delays

Characteristic facial features and mild to moderate intellectual disability. The average IQ of a young adult with Down syndrome is 50, equivalent to the mental age of an 8 or 9 year old child, but this varies widely.

Down syndrome can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening followed by diagnostic testing, or after birth by direct observation and genetic testing. Since the introduction of screening, pregnancies with the diagnosis are often terminated.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Down's syndrome,

  • DS

  • Frequency: 1 in 691 births

  • Symptoms

  • Common physical signs include:

  • Decreased muscle tone at birth

  • Excess skin at the nape of the neck

  • Flattened nose

  • Separated joints between the bones of the skull (sutures)

  • Single crease in the palm of the hand

  • Small ears

  • Small mouth

  • Upward slanting eyes

  • Wide, short hands with short fingers

Source: National Institute of Mental Health


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Down's syndrome,

  • DS

  • Physical development is often slower than normal. Most children with Down syndrome never reach their average adult height.

  • Children may also have delayed mental and social development. Common problems may include:

  • Impulsive behavior

  • Poor judgment

  • Short attention span

  • Slow learning

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Down's syndrome,

DS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ba9LXKH2ztU

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Down's syndrome,

DS

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Down's syndrome,

DS

Quality educational programs, a stimulating home environment, good health care, and positive support from family, friends and the community enable people with Down syndrome to develop their full potential and lead fulfilling lives. -

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Pervasive

Developmental

Disorders (PDD),

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilitiesPDD

  • Symptoms of PDD may include behavioral and communication problems such as:

  • Difficulty using and understanding language

  • Difficulty relating to people, objects, and events; for example, lack of eye contact, pointing behavior, and lack of facial responses

  • Unusual play with toys and other objects

  • Difficulty with changes in routine or familiar surroundings

  • Repetitive body movements or behavior patterns, such as hand flapping, hair twirling, foot tapping, or more complex movements

  • Inability to cuddle or be comforted

  • Difficulty regulating behaviors and emotions, which may result in temper tantrums, anxiety, and aggression.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

The Five Disorders of PDD

Childhood

Disintegrative Disorder

PDD-NOS

Asperger’s Syndrome

Autism

Rett’s Syndrome

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilitiesPDD

Atypical autism (PDD-NOS)

Pervasive development disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS): This category is used to refer to children who have significant problems with communication and play, and some difficulty interacting with others, but are too social to be considered autistic. It's sometimes referred to as a milder form of autism.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilitiesPDD

Autism, the best-known;

Autism: Children with autism have problems with social interaction, pretend play, and communication. They also have a limited range of activities and interests. Many -- nearly three out of every four -- children with autism also have some degree of intellectual disability. Children with autism can frequently have seizures as well as low muscle tone. They also have underlying anxiety and resistance to change.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilitiesPDD

Asperger’s syndrome;

Asperger’s syndrome: Like children with autism, children with Asperger's syndrome have difficulty with social interaction and communication. They also have a narrow range of interests. However, children with Asperger's have average or above average intelligence and develop normally in the areas of language and cognition (the mental processes related to thinking and learning). Children with Asperger's often have difficulty concentrating and may have poor coordination. Asperger's is usually not recognized until children have enough language skills to show a limited focus and unusual patterns of speech.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilitiesPDD

Asperger’s syndrome

Frequently described as unusual or socially immature and awkward. Seem unaffected by others and are often seen as insensitive or unaware of the feelings of others.

Dr. Sheldon Cooper, Big Bang Theory

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilitiesPDD

Rett’s syndrome

Children with this very rare disorder have the symptoms associated with a PDD and also suffer problems with physical development. They generally suffer the loss of many motor or movement skills -- such as walking and use of their hands -- and develop poor coordination. This condition has been linked to a defect on the X chromosome, so it almost always affects girls.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilitiesPDD

Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD): Children with this rare condition begin their development normally in all areas, physical and mental. At some point, usually between 2 and 10 years of age, a child with this illness loses many of the skills he or she has developed. In addition to the loss of social and language skills, a child with disintegrative disorder may lose control of other functions, including bowel and bladder control. Not all medical scientists agree that CDD should be considered a distinct disorder separate from other disorders in what is known as the autism spectrum.

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Cerebral Palsy (CP)

Source: Center for Disease Control


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Definition: Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by an insult to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth.

Individuals with CP typically demonstrate:

Impaired movement associated with exaggerated reflexes,

floppiness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk,

abnormal posture,

involuntary movements,

unsteadiness of walking,

or some combination of these.

Source: Mayo Clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Individuals with CP typically demonstrate:

difficulty with swallowing

eye muscle imbalance

reduced range of motion (ROM)

some can walk but many others can not.

intellectual functioning: Normal to well below normal

Epilepsy

blindness

deafness

Individual with CP often have underlying developmental brain abnormalities.

Source: Mayo Clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Symptoms of CP

Variations in muscle tone, such as being either too stiff or too floppy

Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity)

Stiff muscles with normal reflexes (rigidity)

Lack of muscle coordination (ataxia)

Tremors or involuntary movements

Slow, writhing movements (athetosis)

Delays in reaching motor skills milestones, such as pushing up on arms, sitting up alone or crawling

Favoring one side of the body, such as reaching with only one hand or dragging a leg while crawling

Difficulty walking, such as walking on toes, a crouched gait, a scissors-like gait with knees crossing or a wide gait

Excessive drooling or problems with swallowing

Difficulty with sucking or eating

Delays in speech development or difficulty speaking

Difficulty with precise motions, such as picking up a crayon or spoon

Source: Mayo Clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Symptoms of CP

Brain abnormalities associated with cerebral palsy also may contribute to other neurological problems. People with cerebral palsy may also have:

Difficulty with vision and hearing

Intellectual disabilities

Seizures

Abnormal touch or pain perceptions

Oral diseases

Mental health (psychiatric) conditions

Urinary incontinence

Source: Mayo Clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

The Journey of Lia Sintras - Cerebral Palsy Conquerer

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLFiyfPWrUs

Source: Mayo Clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Source: Mayo clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition that results from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Problems that may be caused by fetal alcohol syndrome include physical deformities, mental retardation, learning disorders, vision difficulties and behavioral problems.

The effects of fetal alcohol syndrome are irreversible.

There is no amount of alcohol that's known to be safe to consume during pregnancy. If you drink during pregnancy, you place your baby at risk of fetal alcohol syndrome.

Source: Mayo clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome isn't a single birth defect. It's a cluster of related problems and the most severe of a group of consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure. Collectively, the range of disorders is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs).

Fetal alcohol syndrome is a common — yet preventable — cause of mental retardation.

Source: Mayo clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Distinctive facial features, including small eyes, an exceptionally thin upper lip, a short, upturned nose, and a smooth skin surface between the nose and upper lip

Deformities of joints, limbs and fingers

Slow physical growth before and after birth

Vision difficulties or hearing problems

Small head circumference and brain size (microcephaly)

Poor coordination

Mental retardation and delayed development

Learning disorders

Abnormal behavior, such as a short attention span, hyperactivity, poor impulse control, extreme nervousness and anxiety

Heart defects

Source: Mayo clinic


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

The FAS child


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

The FAS child


Gpc 355 special education

Most common developmental disabilities

Causes of FAS…….

Alcohol is bad for the baby at all times but especially during the 1st trimester.

Source: Mayo clinic


Gpc 355 special education

The Gifted

The other group of special needs students


Gpc 355 special education

Gifted Range


Gpc 355 special education

The Gifted

Gifted education (also known as Gifted and Talented Education (GATE), Talented and Gifted (TAG), or G/T) is a broad term for special practices, procedures, and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. There is no standard global definition of what a gifted student is.

"gifted“ = outstanding aptitude or competence

"aptitude“ = exceptional ability to learn or reason.

"Competence" = is achievement in the top 10% of the population.

Source: National Association for Gifted Education: http://nagc.org/index2.aspx?id=6404


Gpc 355 special education

Gifted: Intellectually or academically superior…..High IQ and Superior Academic Achievement

Talented: Possessing extraordinary skill or ability…..Music, art, dance, mechanical understanding,

Source: National Association for Gifted Education: http://nagc.org/index2.aspx?id=6404


Gpc 355 special education

Gifted and Talented Education

Goal of Special Education: To promote maximum development and optimal functioning……Be the best you can be!

  • Gifted and Talented Programs seek to :

  • Identify students with extraordinary ability and aptitude (including underachievers)

  • Provide accelerated and enriched educational experiences

The big question is how best to do it?????

Inclusion, Mainstreaming, Segregation, Special Schools????

Source: New South Wales Department of Education


Gpc 355 special education

Gifted and Talented Education

Intellectual traits

Exceptional reasoning ability

Intellectual curiosity

Rapid learning rate

Facility for abstraction

Complex thought processes

Vivid imagination

Early moral concern

Passion for learning

Powers of concentration

Analytical thinking

Divergent thinking/creativity

Keen sense of justice

Capacity for reflection

Personality traits

Insightful

Need to understand

Need for mental stimulation

Perfectionism

Need for precision/logic

Excellent sense of humour

Sensitivity/empathy

Intensity

Perseverance

Acute self-awareness

Nonconformity

Questioning rules/authority

Tendency to introversion

Source: New South Wales Department of Education


Gpc 355 special education

Techniques used to assess a student’s readiness for accelerated placement.

Gifted and Talented Education

•standardised tests of achievement and general ability

•multidimensional testing

•behavioural checklists

•reports from class teachers

•products and performance

•class grades

•a report from the local school counsellor

•interviews with the student

•interviews with the student’s parents/caregivers

•anecdotal records

•evidence of any academic prizes or awards the student has received

•evidence of the student’s extracurricular activities, interests and abilities.

Source: New South Wales Department of Education


Gpc 355 special education

Gifted and Talented Education

Techniques used to assess emotional and social readiness for accelerated placement.

observation of interaction with peers over a reasonable time period

evidence of the student’s maturity, social skills and participation in activities

beyond the school environment, e.g. out-of-school hobbies, interests,

participation

the student’s level of self-esteem and motivation

consideration of the student’s adjustment to problems and decision-making

skills

the student’s participation in extracurricular school activities

the relative benefits of acceleration versus enrichment

anecdotal evidence from teachers and parents/caregivers.

Source: New South Wales Department of Education


Gpc 355 special education

Techniques used to assess emotional and social readiness for accelerated placement.

Gifted and Talented Education

1. Curriculum compacting: the student is given less drill and repetition and

moves faster through the curriculum.

2. Curriculum telescoping: the student spends less time than usual in a

course of study.

3. Mentorships: the student learns with a mentor who provides

skills in a specialised area at the appropriate pace.

4. Extracurricular programs: Course work or summer programs e.g. fast-paced

language or science courses.

5. Early graduation: the student graduates from high school or

college/university in less than usual time.

Source: New South Wales Department of Education


Gpc 355 special education

  • A note about presentations…..

  • Please come prepared. Postponements will NOT be granted.

  • Please come prepared to submit your presentation…a copy will be made to share with colleagues.

  • Please show both courtesy and respect to your colleagues by attending the presentations…asking questions….or otherwise participating in this experience.

  • Please put your ego on the “back burner”….No one expects your English to be perfect….it’s only important that you try and want to share what you’ve learned !!!!!


Gpc 355 special education

Presentations Scheduled for April 28

Nurullah AlinakLearning Disabilities

Emre BasogluPanic Disorder

Gizem CoklukGifted Education

Burak GuneySensory Disability

Ozge KaragozDysosmia

Gizem SamdanADHD

Seher YildirimCerebral Palsy


Gpc 355 special education

When you see

Wile E. Coyote

it means that class is over!

Harika!!


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