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Maurya & Gupta India. Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Edited by Ms. Melissa Steward Gateway Middle School Monroeville, PA. Chandragupta : 321 BCE-298 BCE. Unified northern India . Defeated the Persian general Seleucus .

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Maurya & Gupta India

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Maurya

&

Gupta

India

Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

Edited by Ms. Melissa Steward

Gateway Middle School

Monroeville, PA


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Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE

  • Unified northern India.

  • Defeated the Persian general Seleucus.

  • Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement.


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Had huge army and secret police

Government owned all of the land

Peasants had to pay taxes


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He feared assassination food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc.


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Commerce and industry flourished

Artisans manufactured jewelry, perfumes, fine fabrics, leather work, pottery, and clothing.

Swords and arrowhead were made

Traded increased

Chandragupta Maurya


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As he grew older, he became interested in a religion called Jainism

In Jainism, the true being was the jiva or eternal soul that lived inside the physical body

They believed that every living thing has a soul and that killing any living thing is the greatest evil

Chandragupta Maurya


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The Maurya Empire

321 BCE – 185 BCE


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Kautilya

  • Chandragupta’s advisor.

  • Brahmin caste.

  • Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or theArthashastra.

  • A guide for the king and his ministers:

    • Supports royal power.

    • The great evil in society is anarchy.

    • Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!


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Asoka (304 – 232 BCE)

  • Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in 262 BCE.

  • Dedicated his life to Buddhism.

  • Built extensive roads.

  • Conflict how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person?


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Asoka’s Empire


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Asoka’s law code

  • Edicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan.

  • Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic.

  • 10 rock edicts.

  • Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high.

  • Buddhist principles dominate his laws.


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One of Asoka’sStupas


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WomenUnder anAsokatree


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Turmoil & a power Vacuum:220 BCE – 320 CE

Tamils

The Maurya Empire is divided into many kingdoms.


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Gupta Empire:320 CE – 647 CE


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Gupta Rulers

  • Chandra GuptaI

    • r. 320 – 335 CE

    • “Great King of Kings”

  • Chandra Gupta II

    • r. 375 - 415 CE

    • Profitable trade with the Mediterranean world!

  • Hindu revival.

  • Huns invade – 450 CE


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Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India

  • Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c.

  • He was following the path of the Buddha.

  • He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor.


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Chandra Gupta 11


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International Trade Routes during the Guptas


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Extensive Trade:4c

spices

silks

cotton goods

spices

rice & wheat

horses

gold & ivory

gold & ivory

cotton goods


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Kalidasa

  • The greatest of Indian poets.

  • His most famous play was Shakuntala.

  • During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.


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GuptaArt

Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.


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Gupta Achievements

1000 diseasesclassified

500 healingplants identified

Printedmedicinal guides

Kalidasa

Literature

PlasticSurgery

Medicine

GuptaIndia

Inoculations

C-sectionsperformed

SolarCalendar

Astronomy

Mathematics

DecimalSystem

The earthis round

PI = 3.1416

Conceptof Zero


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The Decline of the Guptas

  • Invasion of the Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them.

  • After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c.


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Bhartrhari

  • 5c India court poet and philosopher.

Knowledge is man's crowning mark,A treasure secretly buried,The source of luxury, fame, and bliss,A guru most venerable,A friend on foreign journeys,The pinnacle of divinity.Knowledge is valued by kings beyond wealth---When he lacks it, a man is a brute.


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