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Chapter 23: . Medicines and Drugs. By: Savannah Heavrin & Sarah Matthews. Indiana State Standards. 10.1 The Role of Medicine 10.2 Drug use-A High Risk Behavior 10.3 Marijuana, Inhalants, and Steroids 10.4 Psychoactive Drugs 10.5 Living Drug Free. The Role of Medicines. Lesson 1.

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Chapter 23:

Medicines and Drugs

By: Savannah Heavrin & Sarah Matthews


Indiana State Standards

10.1 The Role of Medicine

10.2 Drug use-A High Risk Behavior

10.3 Marijuana, Inhalants, and Steroids

10.4 Psychoactive Drugs

10.5 Living Drug Free


The Role of Medicines

Lesson 1

  • Drugs are substances other than food that change the structure or function of the body or mind.

  • Medicines are drugs that are used to treat or prevent disease or other conditions.

  • Vaccine is a preparation introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response.

  • Medicines:

  • Help prevent disease

  • Fight pathogens, or infectious agents that cause disease

  • Relieve pain

  • Help maintain or restore health and regulate the body’s systems

  • Antitoxins is blood that contains antibodies.


Medicines that Promote Health

  • Allergy medicines-Many people rely on antihistamines and other medications to reduce the sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, and runny nose that often accompany allergies.

  • Body-regulating medicines-Some medicines maintain health by regulating body chemistry. Insulin is used to treat to regulate diabetes. Asthma suffers use inhalers to relieve the swelling of bronchial tubes. Cardiovascular medicines are taken to regulate blood pressure, normalize irregular heartbeats.

  • Antidepressant and antipsychotic medicines-These medicines help normalize brain chemistry. Examples, mood stabilizers are often used in the treatment of mood disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. Proper medication can help people with these problems live a healthy, productive lives.

  • Cancer Treatment medicines-These medicines help reduce rapid cell growth and help stop the spread of cancer cells. Example, chemotherapy is used to kill fast-growing cancer cells.


Medicines and the body

  • Most medicines have side effects-reactions to medicine other than the one intended.

  • Additive interaction-occurs when medicine work together in positive way.

  • Synergistic effect-is alone interaction of two or more medicines that result in a greater effect than when the medicines are taken alone-one medicine increases the strength of the other. One medicine may boost the rate of digestion.

  • Antagonistic interaction- occurs when the effect of one medicines is canceled or reduced when taken with another medicine. Example, someone who receives an organ transplant must take antirerejection medicines.

  • Other problems

  • Tolerance-is a condition in which the body becomes used to the effect of a medicine. The body then requires increasingly larger doses of the medicine to produce the same effect. Sometimes a person will experience”reverse tolerance.” In this condition, the body requires less of the substance to produce the desired effect.

  • Withdrawal-occurs when a person stops using a medicine on which he/she has a chemical dependence. Example, medicines containing codeine lead to dependence. Symptoms include, nervousness, insomnia, serve headaches, vomiting, chills, and cramps, gradually ease over time.


Medicine Safety

  • To minimize risks to the public, the federal government has established laws and policies for testing and approving new medicines.

  • Prescription medicines-the FDA has ruled that certain medicines cannot be used without the written approval of a licensed physician.

  • Over-the-counter medicines-This group includes a wide verity of medicines that you can buy without a prescription. Although the FDA considers it safe to use these medications without medical supervision, any drugs can be harmful if not used properly.


Lesson 2: Drug use

  • Substance abuse-any unnecessary or improper use of chemical substances for nonmedical purposes.

  • Not all abused substances are medicines. Many are illegal drugs, or street drugs. People who use drugs are guilty of a crime called illicit drug use, the useor sale of any substance that is illegal or otherwise not permitted. This includes selling of prescription drugs on the street.

  • Peer pressure-is the influence that people your age may have on you. Teens whose friends are acquaintances avoid drug use can say no to drugs more easily than teens whose friends accept and even encourage drug use.

  • Family members- can help teens resist drugs. Parents and other adults who avoid drug use and discourage drug experimentation influences their teen to avoid drugs.

  • Rolemodels-are people you admire and want to imitate. Teens who look up to coaches, athletes, actors, and professionals who avoid and discourage drug use have an advantage in resisting drugs.

  • Mediamessage-can influence your impression of drug use, TV, Music, and digital media can all mislead about the harmful use of drugs.


Health consequences of drug use
Health Consequences of drug use

  • Physicalconsequences-once a drug enters the bloodstream, it can harm a user’s brain, heart, lungs, and other vital organs.

  • Overdose, is a strong sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug.

  • Mental/emotional consequences. Drugs could reasoning and thinking, and users lose control of their behavior.

  • Social consequences. Even people who are “just experimenting” with drugs do say things they later regret. Substance abuse can have a negative effect on relationships with friends and family members. It can ruin your whole life cause you to end up homeless and alone.


Understanding the addiction cycle
Understanding the Addiction Cycle

  • Tolerance. The body of the substance abuser needs more and more of the drug to get the same effect.

  • Psychological dependence. A condition in which a person believes that a drug is needed in order to feel good or to function normally, It develops over time. The user has a continuing desire to take the drug for its effect.

  • Addiction. Anyone who takes drugs risks one of the most frightening side effects: addiction, a physiological or psychological dependence on a drug. Addiction causes persistent, compulsive use of a substance known by the user to be harmful. People in this condition cannot stop without an intervention.

  • Legal consequences- teens manufacturing, or selling drugs are committing the crime of illicit drug use. Being arrested leads to court fines and legal fees.

  • For Babies and children-Substance abuse can cause considerable harm to developing fetuses, infants, and children or drug users.

  • Cost of Society- Drug abuse has consequences beyond the individual and family. One of the biggest burdens placed on society is a rise in drug-related crime and violence because the use of drugs decrease inhibitions, increase aggressiveness, and clouds judgment


Lesson 3

Marijuana and it's Addiction

  • When used it can raise levels of a brain chemical called dopamine which causes the feeling of pleasure. When it wears off the feeling drops which is called “ a crash” and the user wants more. This drug contains more cancer causing chemicals than tobacco smoke, but causes the same healthdamage.

  • Marijuana is a plant whose leaves, buds, and flowers are usually smoked for their intoxicating effects.


Lesson 3

Mental, Emotional, and Physical Consequences

  • People who use may feel dizzy, have trouble walking, have difficulty remembering events that happened earlier, experience distorted perception, and loss of coordination. Short term memory lose also affects users so that will affect school. They may also have trouble with thinking or solving problems.

  • Marijuana users experience slow mental reflexes and may suffer sudden feelings of anxiety and paranoia-an irrational suspiciousness or distrust of others. That means they start to get suspicious of nothing and feel that everyone is after them.

  • For teens the use of marijuana might risk damaging the reproductive organs. In males it affects the sperm production and lowers levels of testosterone, the hormone responsible for the development of adult male characteristics.


Lesson 3

Inhalants

  • Inhalants are substances whose fumes are sniffed and inhaled to achieve a mind-altering effect.

  • Most inhalants go immediately to the brain, causing damage and actually killing brain cells that will never be replaced. Some inhalants the first time you inhale them will kill you.

  • Inhalants can include:

  • -glues -markers

  • -spray paints -whip cream

  • -gasoline -air fresheners

  • -varnishes -paint

  • -fingernail polish remover


Lesson 3

Steroids and there Consequences

Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic substances that are simular to the male sex hormone testosterone.

Steroids are only good when used under a doctors guidance. Medicine with steroids in them are mixed with other drugs to dilute the harmful ingenious.

Use of steroids isn’t only bad for your body, it have mental and social consequences also. The use of steroids can effect friendships and school work. And if you get caught you will be going to jail.


Lesson 4

Classification of Psychoactive Drugs

The four main psychoactive drugs are:

-Stimulants

-Depressants

-Narcotics

-Hallucinogens

Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that affect the central nervous system and alter activity in the brain.


Lesson 4 Stimulants

Examples of stimulants:

*Cocaine-a rapid acting, powerful, highly addictive drug that interrupts normal functioning of the central nervous system. It gives you euphoria, which is a feeling of intense well being or elation.

*Crack-a more dangerous form of crack. It is one of the most deadly drugs. Other names would be crack cocaine, rock, or freebase rock.

*Amphetamines-a drug used in prescription med.s to reduce fatigue, drowsiness and to suppress the appetite. People use it illegally to stay awake, improve their performance, and lose weight.

Health Risks of Depressants

Depressants, or sedatives, are drugs that tend to slow down the central nervous system. Depressants drugs relax muscles, relieve feelings of tension and worry, and cause drowsiness. They can be dangerous because they slow the heart rate, lower blood pressure to dangerous levels, and interrupt the normal rate of breathing.

Rohypnol this depressant which is ten times as strong as tranquilizers, is better known as the date rape drug, used in crimes of violence.

GHB is like Rohypnal, but is available as a clear liquid, a white powder, and in variety of tablets.

Barbiturates belong to a family of sedative-hypnotic drugs, or drugs that induce sleepiness. Barbiturate use can result in mood changes, sleeping more than normal, and coma.

Tranquilizersare depressants that reduce muscular activity. They are prescribed to relieve anxiety, muscle spasms, sleepiness, and nervousness.

*Methamphetamine-(meth) a drug used in treating certain diseases. It is used at parties or night clubs to get high and have fun. When use it may provide a short term feeling of euphoria, but the after results are depression, paranoia, damage to the central nervous system, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and damage to the brain. It may also cause death.

Stimulants are drugs that speed up the central nervous system


Lesson 4

Narcotics

Hallucinogensare drugs that alter moods, thoughts, and sense perceptions including vision, hearing smell, and touch. These drugs have no medical use.

PCP is considered one of the most dangerous of all drugs, and its effects vary greatly from user to user. Users report distorted sense of time and space.

LSDis an extremely strong hallucinogen. Even a tiny amount can cause hallucinogens and severe distorted perceptions of sound and color.

Consequences of drug use

Illegal drugs and other substances play a role in unsafe situations and negative consequences, including health, addictions, and difficulties in school.

Ketamineis anesthetic used for medical purposes, mostly in treating animals. Misused as a club drug, ketamine is often sold as a white powder to be snorted, like cocaine, or injected.

Ecstasy and other Dangerous Drugs

Designer drugs are synthetic substances meant to imitate the effects of hallucingens and other dangerous drugs. Designer drugs vary greatly in potency and strength and can be several hundred times more stronger than the drugs they are meant to imitate.


Lesson 5 Drug Free

Treatment Centers

For the most serious addictions, drug users attend treatment centers, that provide medical supervission while a person goes through withdrawl. Many of these centers provide medications to help with the physical and psychological effects of withdrawal.

Resisting Pressure use Drugs

Peer pressure can be intense during the teen years.

  • Commitment to be drug free- the first step is to make a firm decision.

  • Practice refusal skills

  • Get involved in your school

  • Community efforts.

  • Outpatient Drug Free Treatment- does not include medications and is individual orgroupcouncelling.

  • Short-Term Treatment- These centers can include medications and outpatient therapy.

  • Maintenance Therapy- Intended for herion addicts, treament includes medication therapy.

  • Therapeutic Communities- These are residences for people with a long history of drug abuse. The centers include highly stucturded programs lasting from 6 to 12 months.

Getting Help

Drug abuse is a treatable condition. Support groups, counseling services, and treatment centers are available in most communities.


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