C8 formation of urine by the kidney
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C8 FORMATION OF URINE BY THE KIDNEY. Today I am going to introduce: 1.the microstructure of the Kidney 2. glomerular filtration. our goals are. ⑴ understand microstructure of the kidney ⑵ understand the characteristic of blood circulation in the kidney

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C8 formation of urine by the kidney
C8 FORMATION OF URINE BYTHE KIDNEY


Today I am going to introduce:

1.the microstructure of the Kidney

2. glomerular filtration


Our goals are
our goals are

⑴ understand microstructure of the kidney

⑵ understand the characteristic of blood circulation in the kidney

⑶ describe glomerular filtration


Functions of The kidney:

⑴ regulate water and inorganic ion equilibrium .maintain constant of internal environment

regulate the osmotic pressure of body fluids;

  • the osmotic pressure is formed by electrolyte, kidney regulate value of electrolyte , acid and baseexcretion, and then regulate the osmotic pressure , the electrolyte equilibrium and adjust the balance of acid and base in body fluids.




Which is main function of the kidney
Which is main function of the kidney?

excrete urine

produce urine

Store urine

Transport urine


Which is main function of the ureter
Which is main function of the ureter ?

excrete urine

produce urine

Store urine

Transport urine


Mechanisms of urine formation
Mechanisms of urine formation :

(1) Filtration

(2) Secretion

(3) Reabsorption



Cortex
cortex

medulla


The nephron and collecting duct
The Nephron and collecting Duct

2,000,000

nephrons

Functional unit

of kidney


Composition of nephron
composition of nephron

glomerulus

renal corpuscle

Bowman’s capsule

nephron

proximal convoluted

tubule

renal tubule

loop of Henle;

distal convoluted tubule

The collecting duct


What is functional unit of the kidney
What is functional unit of the kidney?

nephron

glomerulus

renal tubule

collecting duct


Types of nephron
types of nephron

(1)cortical nephrons:(85% )

In the outer and middle portion of the renal cortex (shorter loops)


Cortical nephrons
cortical nephrons

juxtamedullary nephrons

loop of Henle

Collecting duct


Types of nephron1
types of nephron

(2) juxtamedullary nephrons :

(15% )

In the inner cortex (longer

loops)


Cortical nephrons1
cortical nephrons

juxtamedullary nephrons

loop of Henle

Collecting duct


Juxtaglomerular apparatus
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

(1)the juxtaglomerular cells:

they are specialized

myoepithelial cells

in afferent arteriole

release renin


monitor the concentration of NaCl in the tubular fluid and transferthe information to juxtaglomerular cells

(2)the macula densa :


What is cell of release renin
What is cell of release renin?

extraglomerular mesangial cell

juxtaglomerular cells

macula densa


What is cell of monitor the concentration of nacl in the tubular fluid
What is cell ofmonitor the concentration of NaCl in the tubular fluid?

juxtaglomerular cells

extraglomerular mesangial cell

macula densa


Glomerular Membrane

physical barrier

1.The endothelial layer

of the capillary

2.The basement

membrane

3.The epithelial cell

layer of Bowman’s

capsule


Special structure
special structure

Fenestra:

prevent the

filtration of all

particles with

an average size

greater than

16 millimicron.

Red cell


Meshwork basement membrane of the capillary
Meshwork(basement membrane of the capillary)

proteoglycan

prevents the filtration of all particles with diameter greater than 11 millimicron



Slit pores1
Slit-pores

prevent the filtration of all particles with diameter greater than 7 millimicron.

(diameter of plasma proteins ﹥7 millimicron)

plasma proteins


Electrical barrier

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Glycoprotein

(negatvely charge)


-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

prevent filtration of

negatively charged

plasma proteins


Neutral substances:

﹤2 nm(millimicron) –can

be filtered easily

﹥4.2 nm--can not be filtered

between---can be filtered

proportionately

Anionic substances:

difficult to be filtered

(albumin)


The glomerular membrane is almost completely impermeable to all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose )


In following substance what substance is not filter through the glomerular membrane
In following substance , What substance all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose )is not filter through the glomerular membrane.

plasma protein

water

ions

electrolyte

glucose


Innervation of the renal vessels
Innervation of the renal vessels all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose )

Sympathetic fiber

Sympathetic nerve cause constriction of renal blood vessels, which greatly decreases blood flow to the kidney.


Renal blood flow and regulation
Renal Blood Flow all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose ) and Regulation

renal artery →

afferent arteriole→

glomerular capillaries

→efferent arteriole→

peritubular capillaries

→ renal vein


Two capillary beds all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose )

(1)glomerular capillary bed :

high pressure

→filtering

continually

out of the

glomerulus

into Bowman’s

capsule


2 peritubular capillary bed
(2) all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose )peritubular capillary bed :

low pressure →

fluid being reabsorbed

continually into the capillaries


What is characteristic of the glomerular capillary bed
What is characteristic of the all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose )glomerular capillary bed?

low pressure

high pressure


What is characteristic of the peritubular capillary bed
What is characteristic of the all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose )peritubular capillary bed?

low pressure

high pressure


(1)Renal Blood Flow all cells and plasma proteins but is highly permeable to all dissolved substances(such as electrolyte, glucose )

① renal blood flow is about

1200ml/minute

② The renal fraction is about 21

per cent



2 autoregulation of renal blood flow
(2) Autoregulation of Renal renal cortex. Blood Flow

When BP changes from

80 to 180 mmHg,

a relatively constant renal

blood flow is maintained.


Mechanism
mechanism renal cortex.

* When BP descends, afferent

arteriole relax and decrease resistance of afferent arteriole, and then the renal blood flow does not change.

* When BP rises, afferent arteriole

contract and increase resistance of afferent arteriole, and then the renal blood flow does not change, too


3 neuro humoral control
(3)Neuro-Humoral Control renal cortex.

Sympathetic nerve:

→ constriction of renal blood vessels

→decreases blood flow

Vasoconstrictor agents :

Angiotensin II

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Vasodilator agents :

bradykinin, NO and some prostaglandins


plasma → Bowman’s renal cortex.capsule→ proximal convoluted tubule → loop of Henle → distal convoluted tubule→ collecting duct → papilla → renal alyces


Glomerular Filtration renal cortex.

when blood passes

through the glomerulus,

plasma component

(water, ions, and small

molecules filter into

Bowman's capsule.


2 2 filtration pressure
2-2. Filtration Pressure renal cortex.

① capillary pressure

(causes filtration )

②colloid osmotic pressure

in the blood

(oppose filtration)

③capsular pressure

in Bowman’s capsule

(oppose filtration)

.

albumin

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.


Afferent arteriole
afferent arteriole renal cortex.

The effective filtration pressure(EFP)

efferent arteriole

①the glomerular pressure

EFP = ① - (②+ ③)

② glomerular colloid osmotic pressure

③ capsular pressure


renal cortex. the glomerular pressure :

45 mmHg.

② colloid osmotic pressure

in the blood

increase from 25 to 35 mmHg.

③ capsular pressure: 10 mmHg

45mmHg

10mmHg

25-35mmHg


(1) afferent side : renal cortex.

EFP=45-(25+10)=10mmHg

filter

(2) efferent side :

EFP=45-(35+10)= 0mmHg

filterstop

45mmHg

10mmHg

25-35mmHg


2 3 glomerular filtration rate gfr
2-3.Glomerular Filtration Rate renal cortex. (GFR)

The quantity of glomerular

filtrate formed each minute in

all nephrons of both kidneys.

(normal:125 ml/min)

180 L/d

99 % reabsorbed

1 % excreted as urine


Filtration fraction

660ml/min renal cortex.

125/660=19%

filtration fraction

The ratio that

GFR and

renal plasma

flow.

GFR=125ml/min

renal plasma flow

=660ml/min

Filtration fraction

=125/660=19%


Filtration coefficient k f
filtration coefficient (K renal cortex.f )

It image the condition of

the area and permeability of

glomerular membrane.

a constant in nomal

change in kidney disease

GFR= Filtration pressure • Kf


2-4. determinants of the glomerular fitration rate renal cortex.

GFR= Filtration pressure • Kf


(1) Effect of Glomerular Capillary renal cortex.

Pressure

Because of autoregulation, 80 mmHg ~ 180 mmHg. the glomerular filtration rate is constant

BP ↑(over 180mmHg) → glomerular capillary pressure↑ → effective filtration pressure ↑ → GFR↑


(2) Effect of the Plasma renal cortex.

Colloid Osmotic pressure

Liver function ↓ or proteinuria

→ plasma colloid osmotic pressure↓

→ effective filtration pressure ↑

→ GFR↑


ureter occlusion caused by renal cortex.

ureteral calculus, cancer etc.

→ Capsular Pressure↑ →

effective filtration pressure

→ GFR

(3) Effect of Bowman’s

capsule Pressure


(4) renal cortex.Effect of Renal Blood Flow

renal blood flow↑

→plasma colloid osmotic pressure rises slowly →

GFR ↑

①the glomerular pressure

EFP = ① - (②+ ③)

② glomerular colloid osmotic pressure

③ capsular pressure


Renal plasma flow
renal plasma renal cortex.flow

flitrate

Concentration of plasma protein%

renal blood flow

plasma colloid

osmotic pressure

rises fastly

Concentration of plasma protein in normal


The glomerular pressure
the glomerular renal cortex. pressure

renal blood flow

in normal

glomerular colloid

osmotic pressure

capsular pressure

length


the glomerular pressure renal cortex.

renal blood

flow

glomerular colloid

osmotic pressure

capsular pressure

length


renal blood renal cortex.

flow

the glomerular pressure

Glomerular

colloid

osmotic

pressure

capsular pressure

length


(5)Glomerular capillary filtration renal cortex.

coefficient

(1)Kf : the area and permeability

of glomerular membrane

Permeability↑→ Hematuria,

proteinuria

the area →urine in chronic nephritis


We have studied
We have studied: renal cortex.

1. the anatomy construction of the kidney

2. the characteristic of blood circulation in the kidney

3. glomerular filtration


Please answer the questions
Please answer the questions renal cortex.

1.Explain physiology word:

Glomerular Filtration Rate

filtration fraction

2. What is functional unit of the kidney?

3. What is composition of nephron

4. What are characteristic of the glomerular capillary bed and peritubular capillary bed

5. The effective filtration pressure

6.Factors Affecting GFR


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