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Ionic Compounds and Metals. Chemistry Matter and Change: Chapter 7. BIG IDEA. Atoms in ionic compounds are held together by chemical bonds formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions. . 7.1 Ion Formation. 7.1 Main Idea.

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Ionic compounds and metals

Ionic Compounds and Metals

Chemistry Matter and Change: Chapter 7


Big idea
BIG IDEA

Atoms in ionic compounds are held together by chemical bonds formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions.


7 1 ion formation
7.1Ion Formation


7 1 main idea
7.1 Main Idea

Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose valence electrons to achieve a stable octet electron configuration.


7 1 objectives
7.1 Objectives

  • Define a chemical bond.

  • Describe the formation of positive and negative ions

  • Relate ion formation to electron configuration.


Review vocabulary concepts
Review Vocabulary & Concepts

Ion

Valence electron

Octet

Electron configuration

Lewis-dot diagrams

Electron affinity


New vocabulary
New Vocabulary

Chemical bond

Ionic bond

Cation

Anion


Chemical bond
Chemical Bond

  • The force that holds two atoms together

  • Three types

    • Ionic bonds *Chap 7

    • Metallic bonds *Chap 7

    • Covalent bonds *Chap 8


Valence electrons and chemical bonds
Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds

Each valence electron is represented as a dot around the nuclear core of the element.


Valence electrons and chemical bonds1
Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds

  • The most stable electron configuration for an element is the nearest noble gas.

    • ns2np6

    • Octet

  • Ions gain or lose electrons to achieve noble gas configurations




Positive ion formation
Positive Ion Formation

Cation: a positively charged ion

Results when electrons are lost


Metal ions
Metal ions

  • Group 1 loses 1 electron

    +1 charge

  • Group 2 loses 2 electrons

    +2 charge

  • Group 13 loses 3 electrons

    +3 charge

  • Groups 3-12 usually lose 2 electrons

    Most have +2 charge (range from +1 to +3)


Negative ion formation
Negative Ion Formation

Anion: negatively charged ion

Formed when electrons are gained

Non-metals


Nonmetal ions
Nonmetal Ions

  • Group 15 gains 3 electrons

    3- charge

  • Group 16 gains 2 electrons

    2- charge

  • Group 17 gains 1 electron

    1- charge


Section summary
Section Summary

A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together

Some atoms gain or lose electrons to gain a stable configuration; these are called ions

Most stable configurations end: ns2np6.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lODqdhxDtHM&feature=related


Sodium
Sodium

  • Electron loss or ionization of sodium atom

  • Na 1s22s22p63s1 → Na+ 1s22s22p6



Chlorine neon atom

  • A gain of one electron gives chlorine an octet and converts a chlorine atom into a chloride ion.

  • It has the same electron configuration as argon



Section 7 1 practice 1
Section 7.1 practice #1: neon atom

1. How many valence electrons does each of the following atoms have?

gallium

fluorine

selenium


Section 7 1 practice 2
Section 7.1 practice #2: neon atom

2. For each element below, state (i) the number of valence electrons in the atom, (ii) the electron dot structure, and (iii) the chemical symbol(s) for the most stable ion.

Ba

I

K


Section 7 1 practice 3
Section 7.1 practice #3 neon atom

3. Write the electron configuration for each of the following atoms and ions.

  • K atom

  • K ion

    c. Na atom

    d. Na ion

    e. Phosphorous atom

    f. Phosphide ion


Section 7 1 practice 4
Section 7.1 practice #4 neon atom

4. How many electrons will each element gain or lose in forming an ion? State whether the resulting ion is a cation or an anion.

a. strontium (Sr)

b. tellurium (Te)

c. Bromine (Br)

d. aluminum (Al)

e. rubidium (Rb)

f. Phosphorus (P)


7 2 ionic bonds and ionic compounds

7.2 neon atomIonic Bonds and Ionic Compounds


7 2 main idea
7.2 Main Idea neon atom

Oppositely charged ions attract each other forming electrically neutral ionic compounds.


7 2 objectives
7.2 Objectives neon atom

Describe the formation of ionic bonds and the structure of ionic compounds

Generalize about the strength of ionic bonds based on the physical properties of ionic bonds

Categorize ionic bond formation as exothermic or endothermic


Review vocabulary concepts1
Review Vocabulary & Concepts neon atom

Compound

Chemical bond

Physical property

Chemical property

Electronegativity


New vocabulary1
New Vocabulary neon atom

Ionic bond

Ionic compound

Crystal lattice

Binary compound

Electrolyte


Formation of an ionic bond
Formation of an Ionic Bond neon atom

  • Electrons are exchanged between atoms

    • Increases stability of both

  • Ions are held together by the opposite charges


Definition of ionic bond
Definition of Ionic Bond neon atom

  • Bond formed between two elements with an electronegativity difference > 1.7

    • Crystallize as sharply defined particles


Video another video
Video neon atomAnother Video


Binary ionic compounds
Binary Ionic Compounds neon atom

  • Formed from a metal and a non-metal

  • Contain only two elements

    • Examples

      • NaCl

      • MgO

      • CaCl2

      • Fe2O3


Formation of ionic compounds
Formation of Ionic Compounds neon atom

  • Net charge on all ions in a compound must be zero (0)!

    • More on this later!!!


Properties of ionic compounds
Properties of Ionic Compounds neon atom

Anion

Cation

Crystal Lattice: Highly organized crystal of cations and anions


Properties of ionic compounds1
Properties of Ionic Compounds neon atom

Crystalline shape depends on the ions involved


Properties of ionic compounds2
Properties of Ionic Compounds neon atom

  • Physical properties

    • Very strong

    • Solid at normal temperatures

      • Very high melting point and boiling point

    • Many have brilliant colors due to transition metals

    • Hard, rigid

    • Brittle


Properties of ionic compounds3
Properties of Ionic Compounds neon atom

  • Conductivity (ability for electric charge to move through a substance

    • Solids have electrons locked in place

      • Non conductive

    • Aqueous solutions have easily moveable electrons

      • Electrolytes

      • Good conductors


Properties of ionic compounds4
Properties of Ionic Compounds neon atom

PolarDissolution

Dissolve in water

May have radically different properties than the elements that compose them



Properties of ionic compounds5
Properties of Ionic Compounds neon atom

Formation of lattice is always exothermic.


Section summary1
Section Summary neon atom

Ionic compounds contain ionic bonds formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions.

Ions in an ionic compound are arranged in a repeating pattern called a lattice.

Ionic compounds are electrolytes; they conduct electricity in liquid and aqueous states.


Can you
Can you… neon atom

Describe the formation of ionic bonds and the structure of ionic compounds

Generalize about the strength of ionic bonds based on the physical properties of ionic bonds

Categorize ionic bond formation as exothermic or endothermic



7 3 big idea
7.3 Big Idea neon atom

In written names and formulas for ionic compounds, the cation appears first, followed by the anion.


7 3 objectives
7.3 Objectives neon atom

  • Relate a formula unit of an ionic compound to its composition

  • Write formulas for ionic compounds and oxyanions.

  • Apply naming conventions to ionic compounds and oxyanions.


Review vocabulary concepts2
Review Vocabulary & Concepts neon atom

Anion

Cation

Metal

Non-metal


New vocabulary2
New Vocabulary neon atom

Formula unit

Monatomic ion

Polyatomic ion

Oxidation number

Oxyanion


Describing ionic compounds
Describing Ionic Compounds neon atom

Cl-

Cl-

Mg2+

  • Formula unit- simplest way to indicate the composition of an ionic substance

    • NaCl

    • MgCl2


Monatomic ions
Monatomic Ions neon atom

  • Ions in which only one element is present

    • Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, P3-


Oxidation number
Oxidation number neon atom

  • Fancy word for “charge”

  • aka oxidation state

  • Transition metals may have multiple oxidation states

    • Must tell the oxidation state

      • Ex: Iron 2+ is Iron II; Iron 3+ is Iron III


Formulas for binary ionic compounds
Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds neon atom

  • CxAy

    • C is cation

    • A is anion

    • x number of cations in one unit

    • y is number of anions in one unit


Rules for writing formula units
Rules for writing formula units neon atom

  • CxAy

    • Cation is always first

    • Anion is always second

  • Net oxidation MUST BE ZERO


Tried and true method
Tried and True Method neon atom

Write out each ion.

Place oxidation number under each ion

Cross multiply

Reduce to simplest form


Write out each ion
Write out each ion. neon atom

Example 1:

Sodium and chlorine

Na Cl


Place oxidation number under each ion
Place oxidation number under each ion neon atom

  • Sodium and chlorine

    Na Cl

    +1 -1


Cross multiply
Cross multiply neon atom

Na Cl

1 1

  • Sodium and chlorine

    Na Cl

    +1 -1


Reduce to simplest form
Reduce to simplest form neon atom

NaCl

  • Remove any “1”s

    • NaCl

  • Reduce if needed


  • Write out each ion1
    Write out each ion. neon atom

    Iron III and oxygen

    Fe O


    Place oxidation number under each ion1
    Place oxidation number under each ion neon atom

    • Example 2:

    • Iron III and oxygen

      Fe O

      3+ 2-


    Cross multiply1
    Cross multiply neon atom

    Fe O

    2 3

    • Iron III and oxygen

      Fe O

      3+ 2-


    Reduce to simplest form1
    Reduce to simplest form neon atom

    • Fe2O3

  • Cannot be reduced


  • Write out each ion2
    Write out each ion. neon atom

    • Example 3:

    • Magnesium and oxygen

      Mg O


    Place oxidation number under each ion2
    Place oxidation number under each ion neon atom

    • Magnesium and oxygen

      Mg O

      2+ 2-


    Cross multiply2
    Cross multiply neon atom

    Mg O

    2 2

    • Magnesium and oxygen

      Mg O

      2+ 2-


    Reduce to simplest form2
    Reduce to simplest form neon atom

    Mg2O2

    Both subscripts can be divided by 2 so the final formula is

    MgO


    Practice
    Practice neon atom

    Why did we specify some oxidation numbers, but not others?

    Silver I and chlorine

    Antimony (V) oxide

    Aluminum sulfide

    Magnesium and fluorine

    Iron II and oxygen

    Calcium and phosphorus


    Rules for naming binary ionic compounds
    Rules for Naming Binary Ionic Compounds neon atom

    • State the name of the cation.

      • (If using a transition metal, you must state the oxidation number if there is more than one possibility.)

    • State the name of the anion, but change the ending to “ide.”


    Practice1
    Practice neon atom

    • NaCl

      • Sodium chlorine chloride

    • MgO

      • Magnesium oxide

    • K2S

      • Potassium sulfide


    Tricky practice
    Tricky practice neon atom

    • Fe2O3

      • Iron is a transition metal so we need to figure out the charge before we can name the compound.

      • We know oxygen is always -2, so there is an overall charge of -6 from the oxygen

      • That means Iron must supply an overall charge of +6

      • This indicates that iron must have an oxidation number of +3 in this case


    Tricky practice1
    Tricky practice neon atom

    • Fe2O3

      • Iron III oxide

    • CuS

    • AgCl* (trick!)

    • H2O


    Monatomic ions vs polyatomic ions
    Monatomic Ions neon atomvs polyatomic Ions

    Monatomic ion: a one atom ion

    Ex. Mg 2+

    Polyatomic ion: ions made up of more than atom

    Ex. PO43-


    Oxyanions
    Oxyanions neon atom

    • Oxyanions- a polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to one or more oxygen atoms.

    • The ion with the greater number of oxygen atoms ends in –ate.

    • The ion with the fewer number of oxygen atoms ends in –ite.

    • Ex. NO3- NO2-

      • Nitrate Nitrite


    Take out a sheet of paper
    Take out a sheet of paper neon atom

    • Directions:

      • Draw 5 by 5 chart.

      • Write 5 metals ions in the left margin

      • Write 5 nonmetal ions on the top

      • Trade charts with the person next to you

      • Fill in the charts by writing the correct formulas for the ionic compounds formed in the square.

      • Hand the chart back to your partner when your done and check each others responses.

      • Once finished, raise your hand and ask Mrs. Chebib to come over and stamp your work for credit


    Naming polyatomic ions
    Naming Polyatomic Ions neon atom

    • State the name of the cation.

      • (If using a transition metal, you must state the oxidation number if there is more than one possibility.)

    • Name the anion


    Practice2
    Practice neon atom

    • AgNO3

      • Silver nitrate

    • CaCO3

      • Calcium carbonate

    • NH4Cl

      • Ammonium chloride

    • FeSO4

      • Iron II sulfate


    Writing formulas for ionic compounds with polyatomic ions
    Writing formulas for ionic compounds with polyatomic ions neon atom

    Write out each ion.

    Place oxidation number under each ion

    Cross multiply

    Reduce to simplest form


    Side note
    Side note neon atom

    Oxyanions are any polyatomic anions that contain oxygen

    Your book likes to sound fancy!


    Writing formulas for ionic compounds with polyatomic ions1
    Writing formulas for ionic compounds with polyatomic ions neon atom

    You may not, under any conditions, change the subscripts within the polyatomic ion when balancing the charge. You may only adjust the number of units of each polyatomic ion!!

    Use parentheses to remind yourself that the units go together and cannot be changed.


    Write out each ion3
    Write out each ion. neon atom

    Potassium permanganate

    K (MnO4)


    Place oxidation number under each ion3
    Place oxidation number under each ion neon atom

    Potassium permanganate

    K (MnO4)

    +1 -1


    Cross multiply3
    Cross multiply neon atom

    • K (MnO4)

    1 1

    Potassium permanganate

    K (MnO4)

    +1 -1


    Reduce to simplest form3
    Reduce to simplest form neon atom

    • Potassium permanganate is

      K(MnO4)


    Write out each ion4
    Write out each ion. neon atom

    Calcium hydroxide

    Ca (OH)


    Place oxidation number under each ion4
    Place oxidation number under each ion neon atom

    • Calcium hydroxide

      Ca (OH)

      +2 -1


    Cross multiply4
    Cross multiply neon atom

    • Calcium hydroxide

      Ca (OH)

      +2 -1

      Ca(OH)2


    Reduce to simplest form4
    Reduce to simplest form neon atom

    • Ca(OH)2


    Write out each ion5
    Write out each ion. neon atom

    Ammonium phosphate

    (NH4) (PO4)


    Place oxidation number under each ion5
    Place oxidation number under each ion neon atom

    Ammonium phosphate

    (NH4) (PO4)

    +1 -3


    Cross multiply5
    Cross multiply neon atom

    Ammonium phosphate

    (NH4) (PO4)

    +1 -3

    (NH4)3(PO4)


    Reduce to simplest form5
    Reduce to simplest form neon atom

    • (NH4)3(PO4)


    Practice3
    Practice neon atom

    Sodium nitrite

    Calcium sulfate

    Aluminum hydroxide


    Section summary2
    Section Summary neon atom

    A formula unit gives the ration of cations to anions in the ionic compound.

    A monatomic ion is formed from one atom.

    Roman numerals indicate the oxidation numbers of any element with more than one oxidation number.


    Section summary3
    Section Summary neon atom

    Polyatomic ions consist of more than one atom and act as a single unit.

    To indicate more than one polyatomic ion in a chemical formula, place parentheses around the polyatomic ion and use a subscript outside the parentheses.


    Can you1
    Can you… neon atom

    Relate a formula unit of an ionic compound to its composition

    Write formulas for ionic compounds and oxyanions.

    Apply naming conventions to ionic compounds and oxyanions.



    7 4 main idea
    7.4 Main Idea neon atom

    Metals form crystal lattices and can be modeled as cations surrounded by a “sea” of freely moving valence electrons.


    7.4 neon atom

    Describe a metallic bond

    Relate the electron sea model the physical properties of metals

    Define alloys and categorize them into two basic types.


    Review vocabulary concepts3
    Review Vocabulary & Concepts neon atom

    Physical property

    Metal

    Malleable


    New vocabulary3
    New Vocabulary neon atom

    Electron sea model

    Delocalized electron

    Metallic bond

    Alloy


    Metallic bonds
    Metallic Bonds neon atom

    • Lattice structures with freely moving electrons

      • Electrons are not firmly attached to any one nucleus, but instead “visit” many nuclei


    Metallic bonds1
    Metallic Bonds neon atom

    Attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons


    The electron sea
    The Electron Sea neon atom

    Freely moving electrons are referred to as “delocalized” (lacking a location)

    Video


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    Properties of metals
    Properties of Metals neon atom

    • Melting and Boiling points

      • Vary greatly

      • Most are moderately high melting points and very high boiling points


    Properties of metals1
    Properties of Metals neon atom

    • Malleability, ductility and durability

      • Nuclei move relatively free of each other due to the sea of electrons


    Properties of metals2
    Properties of Metals neon atom

    • Thermal and electrical conductivity

      • Delocalized electrons quickly move heat from one part of the metal to other parts

      • Delocalized electrons can move in one direction and create a “current.”


    Properties of metals3
    Properties of Metals neon atom

    • Hardness and strength

      • The number of delocalized electrons plays a role in the hardness of the metal

        • More delocalized electrons means a harder metal

        • Sometimes d level electrons are delocalized as well as the s resulting in very hard metals.


    Metal alloys
    Metal Alloys neon atom

    • Alloy- a mixture of elements that has metallic properties

      • Characteristics may differ from the “parent” metals

      • Include brass, bronze, 14-carat gold, stainless steel, etc.


    Types of metal alloys
    Types of Metal Alloys neon atom

    • Substitutional

      • Some of the atoms from one metal are replaced by atoms of the other metal

      • Ex: brass


    Types of metal alloys1
    Types of Metal Alloys neon atom

    • Interstitial

      • Small holes in the lattice are filled by atoms of another element

      • Example: Steel


    Section summary4
    Section Summary neon atom

    A metallic bond forms when metal cations attract freely moving, delocalized valence electrons.

    The electron sea model explains the physical properties of metallic solids.

    Metal alloys are formed when a metal is mixed with one or more other elements.


    Can you2
    Can you… neon atom

    Describe a metallic bond

    Relate the electron sea model the physical properties of metals

    Define alloys and categorize them into two basic types.


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