French Revolution. And Napoleon. Chronology. 1788-1789—Financial Crisis and Estates General 1789-1792--Liberal Revolution 1792-1794—Radicalization 1794-1799—Reaction 1799-1815--Napoleon. Causes. Intellectual Social Political. Intellectual. Natural Rights Laissez faire
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25 million people
75-80% of population peasants
Collectively owned 35-40% of land
Over half had no land
Dues on use of mills, granaries, wine presses, and ovens
Only the third estate paid these taxes, all others were exempt.
The third estate did not have a say in the government nor in the taxes that were paid by them
Let Them Eat Cake!
The French Urban Poor
Financial Problemsin France, 1789
Convening the Estates General May, 1789
Last time it was called into session was 1614!
The Suggested Voting Pattern:Voting by Estates
The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head!
“The Third Estate Awakens”
“The Tennis Court Oath”by Jacques Louis David
June 20, 1789
Storming the Bastille,July 14, 1789
Paris had been politicized since the Estates General had been elected;
Citizen militia had been organized and acted when king attacked National Assembly
The Great Fear:Peasant Revolt
July 20, 1789
National Constituent Assembly1789 - 1791
August DecreesAugust 4-11, 1789
(A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)
The Tricolor (1789)
The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.
The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge
Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)
Declaration of the Rights of Womanand of the Citizen (1791)
Louis refused to sign Declaration of Rights of Man
83 Revolutionary Departments
February 26, 1790
The Confiscation of Church Lands
Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791
The French Constitution of 1791:
A Bourgeois Government
The French Revolution
By: Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Attitudes & actions of monarchy& court
The Causes of Instability in France1792 - 1795
The National Convention
When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold!
The First Coalition &The Brunswick Manifesto
Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!!
French Soldiers & the Tricolor:ViveLe Patrie!
The Storming of the Tuilieres:August 9-10, 1792
The September Massacres,1792
The First French Republic:1792-1795
Jacobin Meeting House
A Jacobin Club Meeting
The Sans-Culottes:The Parisian Working Class
Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.
The Political Spectrum
The Politics of the National Convention (1792-1795)
Attempts to Controlthe Growing Crisis
Revolutionary Tribunal in Paris trysuspected counter-revolutionaries.
A. Representatives-on-Mission * sent to the provinces & to the army.* had wide powers to oversee conscription.
B. Watch Committees [comité de surveillance]* keep an eye on foreigners & suspects.
C. sanctioned the trial & execution ofrebels and émigrés, should they everreturn to France.
Attempts to Controlthe Growing Crisis
The printing of more assignats to pay for the war.
Committee of Public Safety [CPS]* to oversee and speed up the work of the govt. during this crisis.
Committee of General Security [CGS]* responsible for the pursuit of counter-revolutionaries, the treatment of suspects, & other internal security matters.
Committee for Public Safety
Maximillian Robespierre(1758 – 1794)
Georges Jacques Danton(1759 – 1794)
Jean-Paul Marat(1744 – 1793)
“The Death of Marat”by Jacques Louis David, 1793
The Assassination of Maratby Charlotte Corday, 1793
The Levee en Masse:An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers
An army based on merit, not birth!
Legislation Passed by the National Convention
Law of General Maximum * September 5, 1793.* Limited prices of grain & other essentials to 1/3 above the 1790 prices & wages to ½ of 1790 figures.* Prices would be strictly enforced.* Hoarders rooted out and punished.* Food supplies would be secured by the army!
Law of Suspects * September 17, 1793.* This law was so widely drawn that almost anyone not expressing enthusiastic support for the republic could be placed under arrest!
The Reign of Terror
Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible.-- Robespierre
Let terror be the order of the day!
The Guillotine:An Enlightenment Tool?
Oh, thou charming guillotine, You shorten kings and queens;By your influence divine,We have reconquered our rights.Come to aid of the CountryAnd let your superb instrumentBecome forever permanentTo destroy the impious sect.Sharpen your razor for Pitt and his agentsFill your divine sack with heads of tyrants.
The “Monster” Guillotine
The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939.
Louis XVI as a Pig
Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793)
The Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet
Matter for reflectionfor the crowned jugglers.
So impure blooddoesn’t soil our land!
Marie Antoinette as a Serpent
Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine
Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793
War of Resistance to the Revolution, 1793
Vendee Revolt, 1793
Drowning the Traitors!
Why was there a Revoltin the Vendee?
The need for 300,000 French troopsfor the war effort.
Rural peasantry still highly taxed.
Resentment of the Civil Constitution the Clergy.
Peasants had failed to benefit fromthe sale of church lands.
Local gvt. officialsNational GuardsmenJurying priests
The Contrast:“British Liberty / French Liberty”
The Contrast:“French Liberty / British Slavery”
Religious Terror:De-Christianization (1793-1794)
The De-Christianization Program
The adoption of a new Republican Calendar:* abolished Sundays & religious holidays.* months named after seasonal features.* 7-day weeks replaced by 10-day decades.* the yearly calendar was dated from the creation of the Republic [Sept. 22, 1792]
The Convention symbolically divorced the state from the Church!!
A Republican Calendar
The New Republican Calendar
A New Republican Calendar Year
The Gregorian System returned in 1806.
The De-Christianization Program
The public exercise of religion wasbanned.
The Paris Commune supported the:* destruction of religious & royal statues.* ban on clerical dress.* encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations.
The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was turned into the “Temple of Reason.”
The deportation of priests denounced bysix citizens.
The “Temple of Reason”
Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple, Become the goddess of the French people.
The Festival of Supreme Being
A new secular holiday.
Backlash to theDe-Christianization Program
The Terror Intensified:March to July, 1794
Jacques Hébert & theHérbetists
Danton & the“Indulgents”
Executed in March, 1794.
Executed in April, 1794.
French Victory at Fleurus
The “Thermidorean Reaction,”1794
The Arrest of Robespierre
The Revolution ConsumesIts Own Children!
Robespierre Lies WoundedBefore the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
Danton Awaits Execution, 1793
Read More About the Revolution