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A Human Development View on Value Change Trends (1981-2006). Christian Welzel Professor of Political Science International University Bremen (IUB) [email protected] ?. Istanbul, November 03, 2006. Two Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Variation.

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A Human Development View on Value Change Trends (1981-2006)

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A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

A Human Development View on

Value Change Trends (1981-2006)

Christian Welzel

Professor of Political Science

International University Bremen (IUB)

[email protected]

?

Istanbul, November 03, 2006


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

Two Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Variation

  • Variation in people‘s prevailing value orientations is enormous, yet in many aspects

  • it can be boiled down to just two dimensions of cross-cultural variation:

  • Weak vs. strong SECULAR-RATIONAL Values: with secular-rational values getting

  • weaker one approaches the mythical ideal of a sacred community, with these

  • values getting stronger one approaches the rational ideal of a secular community.

  • This polarity is about ideals of the COMMUNITY.

  • (2) Weak vs. strong SELF-EXPRESSION Values: with self-expression values getting

  • weaker one approaches the conformist ideal of a restrained individual, with these

  • values getting stronger one approaches the ideal of an expressive individual.

  • This polarity is about ideals of the INDIVIDUAL.


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

Weak vs. Strong Secular-Rational Values


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

Weak vs. Strong Self-Expression Values


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

An Underlying Constraint vs. Choice Polarity

The two value dimensions are partially distinct as they have different reference points, the community and the individual.

Yet, the two dimensions also partially overlap:

The weak poles of the two dimensions overlap on a common emphasis on human CONSTRAINT, the two strong poles overlap

on a common emphasis on human CHOICE.

In combination, weak secular-rational values and weak self-expression values pursue an ideal in which individuals are restrained by chaining them to survival communities. The commonality of this ideal is to emphasize human constraints.

In combination, strong secular-rational values and strong self-expression values pursue an ideal in which individuals are free to express themselves by unchaining them from survival communities.

The commonality of this ideal is to emphasize human choice.


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

An Underlying Constraint vs. Choice Polarity


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

The Two-Dimensional Value Space in Theory


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

The Two-Dimensional Value Space in Reality


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

Value Change Progressing from Constraint to Choice

Value change progressing from constraint to choice is a

central aspect of Human Development because this value

change makes people mentally free, motivating them to

develop, unfold, and actualize their inner human potentials.


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

A Human Development Model of Value Change

or Maslowian Value Change (next slide)


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

PROSPERITY

People experience

their lives as

self-directed

People experience

their lives as

safe and secure

More action

resources available

to people

People perceive room

to relieve from

unchosen

community ties

People perceive room

to develop their

creative human

potentials

People tend to value the

choices they are capable

to practice.

Rising SECULAR-RATIONAL

view on COMMUNITY ties

Rising SELF-EXPRESSIVE

view on INDIVIDUAL potentials

Growing Emphasis on

HUMAN CHOICE


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

A Human Recession Model of Value Change

Regressing from Choice to Constraint


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

MISERY

People experience

their lives as

less self-directed

People experience

their lives as less

safe and secure

Less action

resources available

to people

People perceive little

room to relieve from

unchosen

community ties

People perceive little

room to develop

their creative

human potentials

People tend to value the

choices they are capable

to practice.

Receding SECULAR-RATIONAL

view on COMMUNITY ties

Receding SELF-EXPRESSIVE

view on INDIVIDUAL potentials

Growing Emphasis on

HUMAN CONSTRAINT


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

Net Value

Changes

within

Cultural

Zones

(1981-2006)

On average, the five

cultural zones (for which

data are available from

1981 to 2006) have been

moving toward stronger

self-expression values.

Four of these five zones

also moved toward

stronger secular-rational

values. But this move

is less pronounced.


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

Cohort

Differences

throughout

Cultural

Zones

Cohort differences

indicate a long-term

increase of secular-

rational and self-

expression values in

all cultural zones

except Africa.


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

National

Cohorts‘

Value Positions

related to the

Action

Resources

Available in

their

Formative

Years

More action resources

in people‘s formative

years raise their self-

expression values. Yet,

societies‘ trajectories

on this growth path

differ in their height.

Note: Action resources

measured by Vanhanen‘s

index of power resources

(0-100 scale).


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

Let‘s Focus on a Central Component of Self-Expression Values

and Its Implications: Postmaterialistic Liberty Aspirations


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

The

Democratic

Implications

of rising

PLA

Rising PLA let people

place more emphasis

on democracy but make

them more critical of

its presence, nurturing

a democratic reform

potential.

Note:

Scale range of one

standard deviation

around the mean

shown.


A human development view on value change trends 1981 2006

Conclusion

A central component of rising self-expression values, postmaterialistic liberty

aspirations, generates a democratic reform potential by driving people to place

more emphasis on democracy while making them more critical of the actual

democratic performance.


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