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This presentation is all about Sugarcane: its latest varieties, Economies of Scale, Deseases, Research Findings in Pakistan, and Production Technology for small Farmers to maximize their production.

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Sugarcane Development

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M irfan arshad credit vo help officer cmp ii govt of punjab agriculture dept l.jpg

Introduction of new varieties for cane development

By

( M.Irfan Arshad )

Credit & VO Help Officer

CMP-II, Govt. of Punjab, Agriculture Dept.


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IMPORTANCE

  • Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops of Pakistan. Pakistan ranks 5th in cane area and production but 7th in sugar production and 11th in yield per hectare but lowest in sugar recovery among the 12 major sugarcane growing countries of the world. The largest cane producers are Brazil, India, China and Thailand. Pakistan has to compete with these countries in cane yield and sugar recovery to compete in the world market. At present, the country is not even producing cane as much to meet the need of the industry. Total cane requirement of the industry is 68 million tones while total production is 54.87 million tones from which only 40.48 million tones is available for the industry. Thus, 27.52 million tones more cane is required. Hence total cane production should be 82.3 million tones which can not be obtained by increasing the area due to competition with other crops.


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  • Therefore, increase in cane yield per hectare is the pre-requisite. To full-fill the requirement of cane from the existing 1.02 million hectares, the yield level will have to be improved upto 80 t/ha as against present yield level of 53.10 t/ha. Similarly, for the survival of the industry and remain competitive in the international market at Rs. 18/- per kg sugar rate, the industry will have to produce sugar @ 11.00 % recovery at the existing sugarcane price of Rs. 60/- per 40 kg cane against the present recovery level of 8.69 %. Thus for extra recovery of 2.31% introduction rather multiplication of high sugar varieties is the need of the time for the survival of the industry (Table-1, 2 & 3).


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Table-1

IMPORTANCE OF SUGARCANE CROP IN PUNJAB

By-Products:Alcohol, Vinegar, Confectioneries, animal feed, poultry feed,Fish feed, chipboard, win-board, hard board and plywood. Tops as fodder for livestock

bagasse and trash as fuel.

Employment:Direct:40000 people (4000 highly qualified,

16000 semi-skilled & 20000 unskilled) Indirect:0.7 million people


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Table-2

IMPORTANCE OF SUGARCANE CROP IN PAKISTAN

By-Products:Alcohol, Vinegar, Confectioneries, animal feed, poultry feed,Fish feed, chipboard, win-board, hard board and plywood. Tops as fodder for livestock

bagasse and trash as fuel.

Employment:Direct:40000 people (4000 highly qualified,

16000 semi-skilled & 20000 unskilled) Indirect:0.7 million people


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Table-3

Present scenario of cane production and sugar recovery in the country

  • Mills total crushing capacity=68.00 m.t.

  • Total sugarcane production=54.87 m.t.

  • Percent utilization=73.78

  • Cane available for crushing=40.48 m.t.

  • Extra cane requirement=27.52 m.t.

  • Total cane requirement=82.39 m.t.

  • Cane area=1.029 ha

  • Average cane yield required=80.00 t ha-1

  • Present cane yield =53.10 t ha-1

  • Extra cane yield required=26.90 t ha-1

  • Av. sugar recovery required=11.00 %

    @ Rs. 60/- 40 kg cane

  • At present av. sugar recovery=8.69 %

  • Extra cane recovery required=2.31 %


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Over view of cane production and sugar recovery

  • Total area under sugarcane (2006-07) = 1.03 m.ha

  • Total cane production = 54.87 m.t.

  • Total cane crushed = 40.44 m.t.

  • Total sugar made (78 sugar mills) = 3.518 m.t.

  • Sugar recovery % (Pakistan) = 8.70 %

  • (India) = 12.62 %

  • (Florida, USA) = 10.96 %

  • (Mauritius) = 11.05 %

  • (Australia) = 14.50 %

  • (Brazil) = 13.00 %

  • Required sugar recovery in Pakistan = 10.50 %

  • Expected sugar = 4.22 m.t.

  • Actual sugar produced = 3.518 m.t.

  • Extra sugar expected = 0.718 m.t.

  • Value of extra expected sugar = Rs. 17.5 billion

  • Share of each sugar mills (78 sugar mills) = Rs. 224 million


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CAUSES OF LOW SUGAR RECOVERY

  • Sowing of low sugar varieties

  • Payment on weight basis

  • Supply of staled and un-cleaned cane

  • Late application of fertilizer

  • Application of water before harvesting

  • Un-scheduled supply of cane to the mills.

  • Supply of cane to the mills is not according to the maturity schedule

  • Poor development work by the mills

  • Appointment of un-qualified staff

  • Late planting

  • Supply of diseased and insect infected cane

  • Inefficient processing.


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SUGARCANE RECOVERY IMPROVEMENT

1.Role of Variety


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  • Variety plays A pivotal role in enhancing cane and sugar yield. The inherent cane yield and sugar recovery potential varies in different sugarcane varieties. However, the yield and recovery potential of a variety can be realized if a variety has a resistance against diseases and insect pests.

  • At present, average sugar recovery varies from 7.82 to 9.09% with average bench mark recovery of 8.5% (ranging from 6.00 to 9.50%). Whereas, varieties are presented with Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad with sugar recovery starting from 12.50 to 15% with an average of 14.50%. But such varieties need more attention to maintain their purity and health. Such varieties may be tested and multiplied with proper care at the mills farms as healthy seed nurseries for supply to the farmers on exchange basis or at subsidized rates. Thus growing of such varieties will help in vertical improvement of cane and sugar yields as area under sugarcane can not be increased due to competition with other crops.


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CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

NATIONAL SUGAR INDUSTRIES FARM, SARGODHA

(Dated 24-11-2000)

LAB. INCHARGE

National Sugar Mills Limited


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CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

PHALIA SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, KARMANWALA

(Cane samples taken from Zonal Variety Trial from

Chak DHAREACAN KALAN) (Dated 18-1-1999)

CHIEF CHEMIST

Phalia Sugar Mills Limited


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ASHRAF SUGAR MILLS, ASHRAFABAD, BAHAWALPUR.

Doc. No. Lab-FR-01

Rev No.__________

SUGARCANE SAMPLES ANALYSIS

Date: November 03, 2007

D.C.C. (Lab.)

Asstt. Lab. I/C


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ASHRAF SUGAR MILLS, ASHRAFABAD, BAHAWALPUR.

Doc. No. Lab-FR-01

Rev No.__________

SUGARCANE SAMPLES ANALYSIS

Date: November 03, 2007

D.C.C. (Lab.)

Asstt. Lab. I/C


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Samples provided by:Ayub Research Centre, Faisalabad.

Date: 26-12-2007

SHAKARGANG MILLS LTD., JHANG

Contd..p..2..


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Sd/-

Manager (Q.C. & Testing)

Sd/-

Officer Laboratory


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KAMALIA SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, KAMALIA

CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

Date = 07-02-2008


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KAMALIA SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, KAMALIA

CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

Date = 07-02-2008


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KAMALIA SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, KAMALIA

CANE ANALYSIS REPORT

Date = 07-02-2008


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Approved sugarcane varieties of S.R.I., Fsd.During Last 10 Years

*Frost tolerant / resistant varieties


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Sugarcane varieties in pipeline at S.R.I., FSD.

*Frost tolerant / resistant varieties


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PERIODIC RECOVERIES OF SOME COMMERCIAL SUGARCANE VARIETIES

CPF-237

CP 77-400

BL-4

HSF-240

BF-162

SPF-234

Co-1148


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Periodic Recovery % Cane of Some Commercial Varieties,

Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad


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HARVESTING SCHEDULE OF SUGARCANE VARIETIES


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Sugar production cost at varying sugar recovery levels and cane price @ Rs. 60/- 40 kg


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Staling Losses In Different Sugarcane Varieties

(After eight days harvesting)


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Effect of trash and tops on sugar recovery


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Impact of varieties on mills sugar recovery in the Punjab


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Role of variety for Recovery Improvement due to different models in some sugar mills of Punjab.


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Recovery improvement due to reduced non-cane of a sugar mill in Tamal Nadu, India

A. Cane cost

Source: Proceedings of the International Symposium on sugarcane in China, 2004


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CAUSES OF LOW CANE YIELD

  • Improper land preparation.

  • Lack of seed propagation facilities

  • Use of low seed rate

  • Planting time

  • Planting method

  • Inadequate and imbalanced fertilizer use

  • Improper method of fertilizer application

  • Scarcity of irrigation water

  • Weed infestation

  • Plant protection

  • Sowing of unapproved varieties

  • Poor management of ratoon crop


Role of varieties in cane yield of sugarcane at jdw sugar mills 1999 2000 l.jpg

Role of varieties in cane yield of sugarcane at JDW sugar mills, 1999-2000


Yield potential t ha of sugarcane varieties at abdullah sugar mills limited depalpur 2000 2001 l.jpg

YIELD POTENTIAL (t/ha) OF SUGARCANE VARIETIES AT ABDULLAH SUGAR MILLS LIMITED, DEPALPUR(2000-2001)


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ROLE OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO INCREASE CANE YIELD


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Effect of planting methods on sugarcane yield

120

100

80

60

40

Method


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Cane yield affected by planting time & seed rate

/ Seed rate


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Effect of methods of fertilizer application on cane yield


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Cane yield response to weed control

WEED CONTROL METHODS


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Comparison of September & March planting for yield and recovery


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SUGARCANE BASED INTER-CROPPING

(Annual Report 1999-2003)


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Chemical composition of pressmud ofsome sugar mills of the Punjab


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Economic return of yield (Rs./ha) as affected by various treatments

Stripped cane @ Rs. 40/- per 40 kg= Rs. 1020/- tonne

Total cost of fertilizer NPK (168-112-112) kg per ha. = Rs. 9660/- ha

Press mud cost @ Rs.102/- t (cost of 7.78 tonnes press mud)= Rs. 780/- ha


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FERTILIZER EXPENDITURE SAVING BY INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL (INORGANIC) AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER (PRESS-MUD)


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YIELD AT DIFFERENT METHODS OF IRRIGATION (AVERAGE OF TWO YEARS)


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ALTERNATE SKIP IRRIGATION


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ALTERNATE SKIP IRRIGATION METHOD


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Ratoonability of promising and approved sugarcane varieties


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IMPROVEMENT INVARIETAL COMPOSITION


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ACQUISITION OF FARMS BY THE SUGAR MILLS

Each sugar mill should acquire at least 500-1000 acres land to establish model seed farms. The seed of approved and promising sugarcane varieties provided by Sugarcane Research Institutes will be multiplied at model farms for further propagation. At each farm sugarcane experts from research will supervise and demonstrate the latest production technologies.


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REPLACEMENT OF LOW SUGAR VARIETIES.

Some unapproved varieties having low recovery like SPF-238, disco and SPSG-79 have occupied a large area in different sugar mills of Punjab. These varieties are more popular among the growers because of better yield potential, good ratooning, quick growth and less input requirements as compared to high recovery varieties. Such unapproved varieties have made their place in cane area because of cane payment on weight basis rather on quality basis. Hence, quality payment system should be introduced.


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iii.Multiplication and distribution of approved high sugar varieties.

Sugar mills should obtain seed from Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad and other stations for multiplication at their farms and some selective progressive grower’s farms. Thereafter, the seed of the varieties like CP 77-400, CP 43-33, HSF-240, HSF-242, CPF-237, SPF-213, CPF-243 and SPF-245 for central and northern Punjab while SPF-234 and HSF-240 for southern Punjab be distributed on large scale to the cane growers regularly. Thus varietal composition in the mills area will be improved.


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iv.Provision of inputs.

Seed of high sugar varieties should be given to the growers at subsidized rates against interest free loans or given on exchange basis. Other inputs like fertilizer, insecticides and weedicides should be supplied by mills without interest to the growers. Loan on tube well / turbines should be given interest free which will increase the yield of sugarcane per acre.


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V.Cane and sugar yield gap.

The average experimental cane and sugar yields were 38.14% and 51.50% more than the provincial average. Similarly, provincial average cane and sugar yields are also less by 208.52 and 121.50% than experimental highest yields.


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Cane & Sugar Yield Gap in Experimental and Average yield / recovery in Punjab

16

9

49.0

4.45


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Pre-sowing contracts with growers.

To secure the interest of the mills for loan recovery and supply of cane to the mills necessary amendments in Cane Act be made. Loaning should be notified and loany be made responsible to give cane to the respective mill. Other mills should not accept their cane.


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vii.Supply of implements

Sub soilers and sugarcane ridgers (3 in 1) should be supplied to the growers on loan without interest to sow the crop at proper spacing to control weeds and check lodging.


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EARTHING-UP

HSF-242


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  • Disc ratooner


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  • Stubble shaver


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viii.Price incentive on quality cane

Incentive of Rs. 10/- for each 1% increase in recovery should be given to compensate the growers who plant early maturing and high sugar varieties voluntarily, if price is not fixed on quality basis by the Government. The high sugar and early maturing varieties usually may not be as high yielder and good ratooner as the late maturing ones. Then and only then the low sugar varieties can be replaced with the high sugar varieties.


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ix.Variety premium

At least Rs. 5/- per 40 kg cane as variety premium be given to the growers as compensation to plant varieties with high sugar contents.


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x. Supply of press-mud

Filter cake is a rich source of organic matter, micro and macro nutrients. It should be supplied to the growers free of cost as incentive to the growers who plant high sugar varieties.


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xi.Price incentive on quality cane

Incentive of Rs. 10/- for each 1% increase in recovery should be given to compensate the growers who plant early maturing and high sugar varieties voluntarily, if price is not fixed on quality basis by the Government. The high sugar and early maturing varieties usually may not be as high yielder and good ratooner as the late maturing ones. Then and only then the low sugar varieties can be replaced with the high sugar varieties.


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xii.Incentive on clean cane

  • As clean cane gives 1 to 1.7% more recovery, therefore, the clean cane may be given premium.


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J.K. AGRI. FARMS

►NO. OF FARMS27

►FARMS AREA (Acres)8,500

►SC AREA 20023,467

►YPA (mds)890

►SEP. 2002 PLANT3,303

►RATOON1,767

►FEB. 2003 PLANT2,930


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THANKS


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MAURITIUS SUGAR INDUSTRY

RESEARCH INSTITUTE


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