Response of the groundwater system to a Base Level Drop: The Dead Sea Case
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Response of the groundwater system to a Base Level Drop: The Dead Sea Case. Yael Kiro, Yoseph Yechieli, Vladimir Lyakhovsky, Eyal Shalev, Abraham Starinsky. Hebrew University of Jerusalem Geological Survey of Israel. The Dead Sea level during the past 70 years. Continuous drop gw response.

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Response of the groundwater system to a Base Level Drop: The Dead Sea Case

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Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

Response of the groundwater system to a Base Level Drop: The Dead Sea Case

Yael Kiro, Yoseph Yechieli, Vladimir Lyakhovsky, Eyal Shalev, Abraham Starinsky

Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Geological Survey of Israel


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The Dead Sea level during the past 70 years

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

Location map

maps.google.com

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The rate of the groundwater level drop is smaller than the rate of the DS level drop

Groundwater levels in the Tureibe region

Yechieli et al., 2004

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

Groundwater levels in Wadi Arugot

Groundwater levels drop at the same rate as the Dead Sea in all boreholes

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The transition zone during the Dead Sea level drop

The transition zone drops and widens over time

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The response of the groundwater system involves two aspects:

  • The response of the groundwater level

  • The response of the transition zone

  • an instantaneous lake level drop

  • a continuous lake level drop

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

Problem settings

Dead Sea salinity 340 g/L

specified pressure according to the lake level at each time step

no flow

Constant inflow

no flow

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

An instantaneous lake level drop

Bear, 1979

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

An instantaneous lake level drop

Freshwater discharge

Simulations:

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The response of the transition zone

The response of the transition zone depends on

  • The response rate of the fresh water (τgw)

  • The horizontal density gradient

  • Depends on the transition zone slope

  • Depends on the hydraulic gradient

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The response of the transition zone

  • Saline water circulates in steady-state

  • As the lake level drops, the saline water flows towards the lake

  • When the groundwater reaches a new equilibrium, the saline water circulation reappears

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The response of the transition zone

Transition zone characteristic time

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

A continuous lake level drop

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

A continuous lake level drop

A quasi-equilibrium is reached, in which the groundwater level drops but the discharge to the lake and the hydraulic gradient remain constant

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

Field measurements and simulation results

Simulation results and field data both indicate that the hydraulic gradient remained constant during the past few years.

The groundwater level maintained a quasi-equilibrium

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The response of the transition zone to a continuous lake level drop

The saline water circulation reappears during the lake level drop

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

The effect of bathymetry

The transition zone widens when the bathymetry slope is larger

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

Seasonal changes in the fresh-saline interface

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

Summary

  • We defined two characteristic times that describe the groundwater response rate:

    • A groundwater characteristic time (τgw) which depends on the aquifer diffusivity and its length.

    • A transition zone characteristic time (τTZ) which depends on τgw, and the hydraulic gradient.

  • During a continuous lake level drop after a time interval proportional to τgw, the discharge to the lake and the hydraulic gradient attains a constant value.

  • At this stage, the saline water circulation reappears


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

Thank You


Response of the groundwater system to a base level drop the dead sea case

A continuous lake level drop

Quasi-equilibrium

The hydraulic gradient increases until it attains quasi-equilibrium and remains constant

Continuous drop gw response

Continuous drop TZ response

Instantaneous drop gw response

Instantaneous drop TZ response

Introduction


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