Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13
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Welcome to SOCI 2160 Marriage and the Family Winter term, 2012 - 13. Metropolitan Community College Fort Omaha Monday and Wednesday 2 – 3:55 p.m. Agenda for Class #4 12-10-12. Chapter 1 Forms of marriage Gender. Ethical Issues. Do not deceive, coerce or harm the subjects

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Welcome to SOCI 2160 Marriage and the Family Winter term, 2012 - 13

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Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

Welcome to SOCI 2160Marriage and the FamilyWinter term, 2012 - 13

Metropolitan Community College

Fort Omaha

Monday and Wednesday

2 – 3:55 p.m.


Agenda for class 4 12 10 12

Agenda for Class #412-10-12

  • Chapter 1

    Forms of marriage

  • Gender


Ethical issues

Ethical Issues

  • Do not deceive, coerce or harm the subjects

  • Collect data using ethical procedures

  • Protect confidentiality of subjects

  • Report results accurately


Exit exercise

Exit Exercise

  • Now test your knowledge of the vocabulary with the following matching and flashcards game:http://www.quia.com/jg/279164.html (research vocabulary)


Reviewing hypotheses

Reviewing Hypotheses

  • Statement of the relationship presumed to exist between the variables

    • What the researcher predicts will be found

    • Correlation – two events vary together

    • Causation – one event causes the other to happen

  • Variables

    • Independent – influencing variable; cause

    • Dependent – result; what is counted; effect


Sample hypothesis

Sample Hypothesis

  • Age of individual will influence his/her concept of the ideal wedding.

  • Younger individuals will prefer more adventurous and/or larger weddings.

  • IV = age of individual

  • DV = concept of ideal wedding; size of wedding; adventurous quality of the wedding

  • http://www.quia.com/quiz/1430037.html


Forms and functions of family and marriage

FORMS and FUNCTIONS OF FAMILY AND MARRIAGE


Family types

FAMILY TYPES

  • Nuclearno more than two generations

  • Extendedseveral generations with “extended” ties


Family types1

FAMILY TYPES

  • Orientationfamily into which you are born

  • Procreationfamily formed when you marry and producechildren


Forms of marriage

FORMS OF MARRIAGE

  • Based on numbers of spouses

  • Prefix mono = onepoly = several

  • Suffix - gamy = marriage


Forms of polygamy

FORMS OF POLYGAMY

  • Polyandry(andros = male)

  • Polygyny(gyno = female)

  • Cinogamy


When would these be functional

Polyandry

Polygyny

Monogamy

Nuclear

Extended

WHEN WOULD THESE BE FUNCTIONAL?


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • http://www.quia.com/sv/5080.html

  • Fable of He and She


Issues of sex and gender

Issues of Sex and Gender

SOCI 2160

Chapter 2


Sex vs gender

Sex vs. Gender

  • Sex = set of biological characteristics

  • Gender = social and psychological traits expected of people based on their biological sex


Gender

Gender

  • Master status

  • Determines rights and privileges relative to others

  • Gender identity = definition of self


Yin and yang

Yin and Yang

  • Yin yang are complementary opposites that interact within a greater whole, as part of a dynamic system.

  • Everything has both yin and yang aspects, but either of these aspects may manifest more strongly in particular objects, and may ebb or flow over time. The concept of yin and yang is often symbolized by various forms of the Taijitu symbol, for which it is probably best known in western cultures.


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • YANG (masculine power): Heaven/sky, sun, daytime, spring, summer, activity, leading, being awake, speaking, doing, going somewhere (with an aim), singing, positive, warm, expanding, fast, dry, high, wide, right, light; in the body: head, upper extremities, the hollow organs (Fu-organs): colon, gall bladder, bladder, stomach, small intestine...


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • YIN (feminine power): Earth, moon, night, fall, winter, passivity, following, sleeping, resting, eating, drinking, listening, meditating, receiving, accepting, going (with no aim), negativ, cold, contracting, slow, moist, low, near, left, dark; in the body: feet, lower extremities, compact-organs (Zang-organs): kidneys, pancreas, lungs, heart, liver...


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • So every man and every woman, but also every animal, plant or mineral, and each of the innumerous beings existing in the vast spaces of the universe, had once been created either as a predominantly male or a predominantly female being - and it has within himself/herself both female and male aspects and characteristics. 

    Source: http://www.puramaryam.de/createtao.html


Gender stereotypes

Gender Stereotypes

  • Stereotype - rigidly held belief that a category of people have a particular set of characteristics

    • So with the yin/yang philosophy, how did we get such rigid

      stereotypes?

    • Are some behaviors inherently male or female?


Research results

Research results

  • Many studies of the 1990’s show that Americans still strongly associate certain personality traits, interests and abilities with males and others with females

  • Open you-tube


Is biology destiny

Is biology destiny?

  • XX or XY chromosomes

  • Sociobiologists believe that gender differences in personality can be attributed to biology

  • Does evolution favor males who are stronger and females who would be good reproducers?


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • What names or put-downs are boys/men called when they don't fit the box?

  • What names are girls/women called if they step out of the stereotype box?


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-VqsbvG40Ww (check link)


Traditional beliefs

Traditional beliefs

  • Showed gender differences in mathematical ability, visual spatial ability, verbal ability and helping skills

  • Men better in first two; women better in latter


Newer analyses

Newer Analyses

  • Debunk traditional studies

  • Analysis of over 100 studies

    • e.g., math differences very small; females slightly better than males


Helping behavior

Helping Behavior

  • Dominant female stereotype of nurturance

    • actually, men are more likely to help

    • women are more likely to be helped


Helping behavior1

Helping Behavior

  • Helping behaviors of men may involve risk as well as courtesy and protection

  • Females are more likely to care for others in close relationships

    • Traditionally “female” occupations


Aggression

Aggression

  • Stereotypically masculine

    • Actually, gender differences relative to aggression

      • show small differences

      • decrease with age

      • have declined over time


Impact of gender

Impact of Gender

  • Men may be stronger and more robust than women but

    • women have longer life expectancy

    • 105 boy babies are born for every girl but as adults the ratio is 95 males per 100 females


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • Men

    • more susceptible to heart disease, stroke, arteriosclerosis, etc.

    • more coronary prone behavior (Type A)

    • higher death rate due to cancer

    • heavy drinking, smoking and risk-taking behavior


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • Women

    • higher morbidity (illness)

    • more doctor visits and more hospitalizations

    • traditional roles may have negative consequences for women’s mental health

      • more depression

    • limited sources of economic success and satisfaction


Education

Education

  • Men and women have similar levels of educational attainment

  • Men dominate highest levels

  • Segregation by major; gender-labeled careers

  • Thus, a gender gap in pay


Learning gender roles

Learning Gender Roles

  • Identification theory

    • Freudian origins

    • children are aware of differences in external genitals

      • Penis envy

      • Castration anxiety

    • criticized by feminists because of genital emphasis


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • Social Learning theory

    • behaviorism (rewarded behavior is learned most effectively)

    • reinforcement and modeling

    • are children passive participants in the gender learning process?


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • Cognitive Development Theory

    • Piaget and Kohlberg

    • Children learn to categorize people and objects (schema)

    • downplays the role of culture


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

  • Encultured Lenses theory

    • Sandra Bem maintains that sex is used as a categorization tool

    • natives of each culture view the world in a certain way (ie, through a lens)

    • experiences are preprogrammed to fit an expected pattern


Related vocabulary

Related vocabulary

  • gender polarization- belief in the opposition of male and female

  • androcentrism- belief in the superiority of males

  • androgyny- blending of traditionally masculine and feminine characteristics

  • Androgyny scale


Parental influences

Parental Influences

  • Parents respond in gender-specific ways very early in child’s life

  • toys, colors, clothing, décor, handling of child, play behavior, behavioral expectations, restrictions and encouragement of exploration


Teachers influence

Teachers’ Influence

  • Classroom tasks are gender-segregated and specific

  • tolerance of neatness, or lack of it

  • respond more frequently to boys in both + and - ways

  • math, science, college-prep, etc.


Media influence

Media influence

  • Television

    • reinforces stereotypes

    • youth and beauty

    • simply sex and glamour added

    • male dominated story lines

  • Jean Kilbourne

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTlmho_RovY&feature=related

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufHrVyVgwRg&feature=related


Commercials

Commercials

  • Average American sees 714 / week

  • men - independent, authoritative, career- oriented

  • women - housewives

  • more male voice-over narration


Female circumcision

Female Circumcision

  • 80 million girls and women in 40 countries

  • usually performed on girls aged 7 - 13 years

  • life-threatening side effects

  • “FGM” - target of human rights organizations


Types of fgm

Types of FGM

  • Clitorectomy – removing the clitoris so that sex cannot be enjoyed

  • Infibulation – clitorectomy plus sewing the labia closed; leaving only a small hole for urination and menstrual discharge

    • Intercourse would be painful

    • Childbirth

      • Surgical procedure, if in urban areas

      • In rural regions – tearing and pain

      • Labia are reclosed after delivery of baby


Welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

Assignment for Wednesday

  • Chapter 3


  • Login