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Welcome to SOCI 2160 Marriage and the Family Winter term, 2012 - 13. Metropolitan Community College Fort Omaha Monday and Wednesday 2 – 3:55 p.m. Agenda for Class #4 12-10-12. Chapter 1 Forms of marriage Gender. Ethical Issues. Do not deceive, coerce or harm the subjects

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welcome to soci 2160 marriage and the family winter term 2012 13

Welcome to SOCI 2160Marriage and the FamilyWinter term, 2012 - 13

Metropolitan Community College

Fort Omaha

Monday and Wednesday

2 – 3:55 p.m.

agenda for class 4 12 10 12
Agenda for Class #412-10-12
  • Chapter 1

Forms of marriage

  • Gender
ethical issues
Ethical Issues
  • Do not deceive, coerce or harm the subjects
  • Collect data using ethical procedures
  • Protect confidentiality of subjects
  • Report results accurately
exit exercise
Exit Exercise
  • Now test your knowledge of the vocabulary with the following matching and flashcards game:http://www.quia.com/jg/279164.html (research vocabulary)
reviewing hypotheses
Reviewing Hypotheses
  • Statement of the relationship presumed to exist between the variables
    • What the researcher predicts will be found
    • Correlation – two events vary together
    • Causation – one event causes the other to happen
  • Variables
    • Independent – influencing variable; cause
    • Dependent – result; what is counted; effect
sample hypothesis
Sample Hypothesis
  • Age of individual will influence his/her concept of the ideal wedding.
  • Younger individuals will prefer more adventurous and/or larger weddings.
  • IV = age of individual
  • DV = concept of ideal wedding; size of wedding; adventurous quality of the wedding
  • http://www.quia.com/quiz/1430037.html
family types
  • Nuclearno more than two generations
  • Extendedseveral generations with “extended” ties
family types1
  • Orientationfamily into which you are born
  • Procreationfamily formed when you marry and producechildren
forms of marriage
  • Based on numbers of spouses
  • Prefix mono = onepoly = several
  • Suffix - gamy = marriage
forms of polygamy
  • Polyandry(andros = male)
  • Polygyny(gyno = female)
  • Cinogamy
when would these be functional





issues of sex and gender

Issues of Sex and Gender

SOCI 2160

Chapter 2

sex vs gender
Sex vs. Gender
  • Sex = set of biological characteristics
  • Gender = social and psychological traits expected of people based on their biological sex
  • Master status
  • Determines rights and privileges relative to others
  • Gender identity = definition of self
yin and yang
Yin and Yang
  • Yin yang are complementary opposites that interact within a greater whole, as part of a dynamic system.
  • Everything has both yin and yang aspects, but either of these aspects may manifest more strongly in particular objects, and may ebb or flow over time. The concept of yin and yang is often symbolized by various forms of the Taijitu symbol, for which it is probably best known in western cultures.

YANG (masculine power): Heaven/sky, sun, daytime, spring, summer, activity, leading, being awake, speaking, doing, going somewhere (with an aim), singing, positive, warm, expanding, fast, dry, high, wide, right, light; in the body: head, upper extremities, the hollow organs (Fu-organs): colon, gall bladder, bladder, stomach, small intestine...


YIN (feminine power): Earth, moon, night, fall, winter, passivity, following, sleeping, resting, eating, drinking, listening, meditating, receiving, accepting, going (with no aim), negativ, cold, contracting, slow, moist, low, near, left, dark; in the body: feet, lower extremities, compact-organs (Zang-organs): kidneys, pancreas, lungs, heart, liver...


So every man and every woman, but also every animal, plant or mineral, and each of the innumerous beings existing in the vast spaces of the universe, had once been created either as a predominantly male or a predominantly female being - and it has within himself/herself both female and male aspects and characteristics. 

Source: http://www.puramaryam.de/createtao.html

gender stereotypes
Gender Stereotypes
  • Stereotype - rigidly held belief that a category of people have a particular set of characteristics
    • So with the yin/yang philosophy, how did we get such rigid


    • Are some behaviors inherently male or female?
research results
Research results
  • Many studies of the 1990’s show that Americans still strongly associate certain personality traits, interests and abilities with males and others with females
  • Open you-tube
is biology destiny
Is biology destiny?
  • XX or XY chromosomes
  • Sociobiologists believe that gender differences in personality can be attributed to biology
  • Does evolution favor males who are stronger and females who would be good reproducers?

What names or put-downs are boys/men called when they don\'t fit the box?

  • What names are girls/women called if they step out of the stereotype box?
traditional beliefs
Traditional beliefs
  • Showed gender differences in mathematical ability, visual spatial ability, verbal ability and helping skills
  • Men better in first two; women better in latter
newer analyses
Newer Analyses
  • Debunk traditional studies
  • Analysis of over 100 studies
    • e.g., math differences very small; females slightly better than males
helping behavior
Helping Behavior
  • Dominant female stereotype of nurturance
    • actually, men are more likely to help
    • women are more likely to be helped
helping behavior1
Helping Behavior
  • Helping behaviors of men may involve risk as well as courtesy and protection
  • Females are more likely to care for others in close relationships
      • Traditionally “female” occupations
  • Stereotypically masculine
    • Actually, gender differences relative to aggression
      • show small differences
      • decrease with age
      • have declined over time
impact of gender
Impact of Gender
  • Men may be stronger and more robust than women but
    • women have longer life expectancy
    • 105 boy babies are born for every girl but as adults the ratio is 95 males per 100 females
    • more susceptible to heart disease, stroke, arteriosclerosis, etc.
    • more coronary prone behavior (Type A)
    • higher death rate due to cancer
    • heavy drinking, smoking and risk-taking behavior
    • higher morbidity (illness)
    • more doctor visits and more hospitalizations
    • traditional roles may have negative consequences for women’s mental health
      • more depression
    • limited sources of economic success and satisfaction
  • Men and women have similar levels of educational attainment
  • Men dominate highest levels
  • Segregation by major; gender-labeled careers
  • Thus, a gender gap in pay
learning gender roles
Learning Gender Roles
  • Identification theory
      • Freudian origins
      • children are aware of differences in external genitals
        • Penis envy
        • Castration anxiety
      • criticized by feminists because of genital emphasis
Social Learning theory
    • behaviorism (rewarded behavior is learned most effectively)
    • reinforcement and modeling
    • are children passive participants in the gender learning process?
Cognitive Development Theory
    • Piaget and Kohlberg
    • Children learn to categorize people and objects (schema)
    • downplays the role of culture
Encultured Lenses theory
    • Sandra Bem maintains that sex is used as a categorization tool
    • natives of each culture view the world in a certain way (ie, through a lens)
    • experiences are preprogrammed to fit an expected pattern
related vocabulary
Related vocabulary
  • gender polarization- belief in the opposition of male and female
  • androcentrism- belief in the superiority of males
  • androgyny- blending of traditionally masculine and feminine characteristics
  • Androgyny scale
parental influences
Parental Influences
  • Parents respond in gender-specific ways very early in child’s life
  • toys, colors, clothing, décor, handling of child, play behavior, behavioral expectations, restrictions and encouragement of exploration
teachers influence
Teachers’ Influence
  • Classroom tasks are gender-segregated and specific
  • tolerance of neatness, or lack of it
  • respond more frequently to boys in both + and - ways
  • math, science, college-prep, etc.
media influence
Media influence
  • Television
    • reinforces stereotypes
    • youth and beauty
    • simply sex and glamour added
    • male dominated story lines
  • Jean Kilbourne
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTlmho_RovY&feature=related
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufHrVyVgwRg&feature=related
  • Average American sees 714 / week
  • men - independent, authoritative, career- oriented
  • women - housewives
  • more male voice-over narration
female circumcision
Female Circumcision
  • 80 million girls and women in 40 countries
  • usually performed on girls aged 7 - 13 years
  • life-threatening side effects
  • “FGM” - target of human rights organizations
types of fgm
Types of FGM
  • Clitorectomy – removing the clitoris so that sex cannot be enjoyed
  • Infibulation – clitorectomy plus sewing the labia closed; leaving only a small hole for urination and menstrual discharge
    • Intercourse would be painful
    • Childbirth
      • Surgical procedure, if in urban areas
      • In rural regions – tearing and pain
      • Labia are reclosed after delivery of baby