THÁI NGUYÊN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION. CULTURE OF VIETNAMESE ETHNIC MINORITIES. Assoc. Professor NGUYỄN HẰNG PHƯƠNG Faculty of Vietnamese Email: [email protected] Tel: 0915.363.229. TH ÁI NGUYÊN, 2013. CONTENT. CHAPTER 2 CUSTOMS (WEDDING & FUNERAL).
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THÁI NGUYÊN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
CULTURE OF VIETNAMESE ETHNIC MINORITIES
Assoc. Professor NGUYỄN HẰNG PHƯƠNG
Faculty of Vietnamese
Email: [email protected]
THÁI NGUYÊN, 2013
1.2.2. Distribution (Tínhchấtcưtrú)
126.96.36.199. Co-habitation forms cultural regions (Cưtrú xenkẽ)
- The ethnic minorities often inhabit together with others in an area (province, district).
E.g: There is even 20 ethnic groups within a district.
- In each area, there is 1 or 2 groups with higher development level, which play the main role in establishing a cultural region. Ethnic minorities mostly live in 5 regions.
- Within a region, there are sub-regions. In each sub-region, there is a centered ethnic group which might be the centered ethnic group of the whole region or another one
6 cultural regions:
1. The Northwest (Thái, Mường)
2. The Northeast (Việt Bắc: Tày, Nùng)
3. The North Delta (Việt)
4. The Central (Trung Bộ: Việt, Chăm)
5. The Central Highland (Tây Nguyên: Mon-Khmer Groups)
6. The South Delta (Việt, Chăm, Hoa and native groups such as Khmer, Mạ, Xtiêng, Chơro, Mnông...)
Việt (Kinh): deltas. Ethnic minorities: other areas.
CHAPTER 2:CUSTOMS OF VIETNAMESEETHNIC MINORITIES
2.1. Introduction (Khái quát về phong tục):customs = diversified
- hunting + gathering + cultivation (rice/corn/cassava + veg.)
Some cultivates in terraced fields (Mông, Pu Péo, Phù Lá….)
Some: wet fields (Chăm, Hoa, Tày…)
- Some traditional crafts: pottery (Chăm, Khơ me, Hoa), textile weaving (Khơ me, Tà ôi...), bamboo weaving (Thái, Cống, La Chí, La Hủ...).
- Goods transportation: human/boat/horse carry goods to trade. Popular: human-carrying.
* Lifestyle (Về sinh hoạt - ăn, ở, mặc)
* Social relationships (Về quan hệ xã hội)
2.2. Marriage (Hônnhân)
Purpose: tight the relationships between couples, families and clans.
2.2.1. Giới thiệu khái quát
- Decide: parents, head of the clan.
- Depending in the system (paternal/maternal) the bride/bridegroom’s family organize and pay for the wedding. Maternal society: bridegroom live with the bride’s family. Some: respectively live with bride’s family and bridegroom’s one.
- Most ethnic minorities forbid cousins to get married. Some allow (Bru Vân Kiều, Tà – ôi, Cơ – tu, Gia – rai, Ê – đê).
- Most: couples are free to marry their lovers. Some groups create ‘wife/husbad kidnapping’ to allow couples overcome social/financial obstacles.
- Wedding procedure: engagement ceremony, wedding, report ceremony (visit bride’s parents)
2.2.2. Some wedding styles
188.8.131.52. Wedding ceremony of the Tay (Đám cưới của người Tày)
- Ceremonies:Greeting, engagement, New Year gift giving, wedding time selection, wedding day, taking the bride, accompanying the bride to bridegroom’s house.
- Cost:paid by bridegroom’s family show gratefulness to bride’s parents
+ 4 - 5 p.m: for elders
+ 7 - 8 p.m: young people (couple’s friends). Everyone stays after the meals to talk/drink/play games/sing all night.
- Taking the bride:
+ Party:quan lang (male matchmaker), pả mẻ (female matchmaker), bridegroom, 2 best men, a young girl and some young, unmarried people who carry the presents.
+ Presents: 100 green cakes, 400 white cakes, 2 big white cakes (traditional cakes), 1 roast pig, 2 chicken, wine, trầu cau, 2 fishes, some pork innards, a bag of seeds, some sugar, a red bag, a wet-dry cloth bride’s parents
- Receiving ceremony (Đón tiếp):
+ Greeting: bride-sided female matchmaker greets the party, bridegroom-sided male matchmaker greets back.
+ Obstacle game: hanging rope/ laying the groom or leave a cat at the door bridegroom-sided male matchmaker needs to sing politely and cleverly to win over.
+ Present receiving Bow at the ancestor’s altar Wine offering People give wishes to couple dinner together.
Chăng dây trong đám cưới của người Tày
(Hanging rope in wedding of the Tay)
Búi tóc ngược trong lễ Tằng khẩu (đám cưới người Thái)
Upside down hair bunning in wedding of the Thai
Mâm cỗ cưới của người Bru Vân Kiều
Wedding meal in wedding of the Bru Van Kieu
2.2.3. Funeral (Phong tục tang ma của đồng bào dân tộc thiểu số)
* Introduction (Giới thiệu chung)
- An important rite of passage to Vietnamese ethnic minorities shows the love and respect towards the death.
+ Some ethnic minorities in the Northern mountainous area: fresh funeral + dry funeral.
+ Some ethnic minorities in the South: grave-leaving ceremony. Some provide meals and buffalo to the death.
+ Especially, some ethnic group in the Central Highland organize big grave-leaving ceremony and build the new tomb for the death.
Some typical funerals
(a) Dry funeral of the H’mong (Đám ma khôcủangườiMông)
- Held 13 days after the fresh funeral (burying the death). The Mông people believe that the death only recognizes that he/she was dead already after 13 days. No annual anniversary for the death in Mông culture dry funeral is the last ceremony to say goodbye to the death important.
Đám ma khô của người Tày Cao Bằng
Dry funeral of the Tay in Cao Bang
(b) Grave-leaving ceremony of some ethnic minorities in the Central Highland
(Lễ bỏ mả của một số dân tộc miền Trung Tây Nguyên)
* Temporary tomb: a simple hut for the death. The death’s head is turned towards the sun’s rising. Family members have to clean the hut and offer meals to the death regularly Believe: the death’s spirit is still around the family members.
* Grave-leaving ceremony:rid of the temporary hut build a new, long-life tomb Meanings:
- Sadness: last time to say goodbye to the death
- Joy: the livings pay full responsibility to the death. The death is no longer around to haunt the family.
- Time: 3-7 days + 1 month of preparation.
- New house grave (the Banar): two low roofs, no walls. Top: decorated with bird, animal and man figures.
- Tomb statues (man, monkey, buffalo, bird…): wooden. Rough but lively Highlanders believe the death’s spirit will possess the statues statues become slaves of the death in the other world every feeling of mankind (sadness, grief, happiness, worry) is expressed in the statues’ faces. There are some sexual statues highlander worship penis wish for fertility.
Tượng nhà mồ ở Tây Nguyên
Tomb statues in the Central Highland
CHAPTER 3CUISINE CULTURE OF VIETNAMESE ETHNIC MINORITIES
3.2. Typical cuisine
3.2.1. Steamed sticky rice with ant’s eggs of the Tay
* Ingredients:black ant’s egg, sticky rice, special onion (củ kiệu), oil.
-Steam the rice. Stir-fry onion with eggs and spices. Stir everything together and put some fried onion on top.
- Serve hot.
Steamed sticky rice with ant’s eggs
3.2.2. 5-colored steamed sticky rice of the Tay
* Ingredients: sticky rice, ginger leaves, turmeric powder, special red leaves (lá cơm đỏ)
* Recipe: Steep rice and grind red leaves in water red and purple steamed rice; Rice + turmeric yellow; red sticky rice black. 5 different colors are put together in the dish Five Elements Theory (kim, mộc, thuỷ, hoả, thổ - 5 elements which create the universe)
Use in sacred ceremonies
3.2.3. Khâu nhục of the Tay, Nung, Hoa
* Ingredients:belly pork, lá tầu soi (special pickled vegetables), black bean sauce, soy sauce, garlic, húng lìu
* Recipe:Boil the pork add spices roast. Fry purple potato. Mix pork fat, aromatic mushroom, bean, egg together to make stuffing.Put the pork and all the stuffing and spices together in the bowl and steam it in 5 hours.
2.2.4. Roasted moss of the Thai
* Ingredients:river moss, hạt dổi, hạt mắc khén (two special spices from forest), pepper, garlic, ginger, lemon grass, lemon leaves + pork fat
* Recipe:Moss is taken from clean river. Mix moss with spices and fat. Use dong leaves to cover the mixture. Put it in warm ash for a while roast it on burning charcoal. Besides the special flavor of spices, the moss taste fresh and pure.
3.2.5. Thắng cố of the Mông (H’mong)
* Ingredients: Bones, inner organs of horse/ox, spices
* Recipe: Put all of ingredients into the boiling deep pan. Rid of the froth. Serve hot with salt. Customers can have it together with homemade corn cakes. When some friends join, they buy some wine to cheer up together.
3.2.6. Tube wine (rượu cần) of the Mường in Hoà Bình
* Ingredients: Sticky rice, ferment from forest leaves, pottery vase
* Recipe and serving
- Specialty of Hòa Bình. The wine is made from rice and natural ferment safe & great flavor.
- Wine is put in a vase and people drink it through bamboo tubes a wine for drinking together. Tradition: drinking together + game + alternately singing
Tube wine culture community spirit
3.2.7. Mountain field pigs of the Central Highlanders
* Ingredients: naturally-raised pigs , parsley, coriander, lemon grass, pepper, salt..
- Pigs are raised naturally in mountain fields less fat + soft + juicy.- These pigs can be spiced and roasted in two ways: roast barbecue sticks or roast the whole pig.
Măng rừng (măng lay, măng vầu)
Forest bamboo shoots
Nậm Pịa ( a sauce made from buffalo/ox/horse/goat’s inner organs)
Nước lèo thịt dê
Soup made from goat meat (the Cham group)
Lẩu lá rừng
Hotpot of forest vegetables
Bánh lá ngải
Cakes made from sticky rice and a vegetable
Mèn mén (Steamed mash corn)
Cơm lam (Sticky rice cooked in a bamboo tube)