Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service
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Developing a Nationally Recognized Program within USDA Agricultural Research Service. Michael Buser, Ph.D. Agricultural Engineer USDA-ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit Lubbock, TX. Education & Experience Overview. Education

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Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

Developing a Nationally Recognized Program within USDA Agricultural Research Service

Michael Buser, Ph.D.

Agricultural Engineer

USDA-ARS Cotton Production and

Processing Research Unit

Lubbock, TX


Education experience overview

Education & Experience Overview

  • Education

    • Doctorate of Philosophy - Biological and Agricultural Engineering – 2004 –

      • Texas A&M University

    • Masters of Science - Biosystems Engineering – 1997

      • Oklahoma State University

    • Bachelor of Science - Biosystems Engineering - 1995

      • Oklahoma State University

    • Associate of Applied Science - Animal Science- 1990

      • Rogers State College

  • Experience

    • USDA Agricultural Research Service – Category I Scientist

      • September 2002 to present – Lubbock, TX

      • May 1998 to September 2002 – Stoneville, MS

    • Oklahoma State University – Research Engineer

      • January 1997 to May 1998


Bioenergy machinery engineer target criteria vs buser s experience

Bioenergy Machinery Engineer – Target Criteria vs. Buser’s Experience

  • Buser’s early career

    • Conduct research on equipment and machinery

      • Producing, harvesting, transporting, and pre-processing biomass feedstocks

  • Buser’s air quality program

    • Establish a nationally recognized research and extension program

    • Provide leadership

  • Throughout Buser’s career

    • Develop and deliver curricula, training , and support for educational programming

    • Work with extension educators, agricultural producers, and bioenergy industry

    • Address stakeholder needs

    • Work as a team member


Marigold harvesting

Marigold Harvesting


Marigold post harvester processing

Marigold Post-Harvester Processing


Unr cotton harvesting

UNR Cotton Harvesting


Cotton gin stand evaluations enhancements

Comparison Study

Saw spacing, number of saw cylinders, saw diameter, etc.

Capacity Study

Bench Ginning

Conceptual Designs (Move away from Henry Holmes design)

Development of Powered Roll Gin Stand

Paddle

Roll

Gin Saw

Seed Finger

Roll

Cotton Gin Stand Evaluations & Enhancements


Lint cleaning studies

Lint Cleaning Studies


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

Gin By-Products Livestock Feed

  • Cotton gin byproducts can be processed into a high energy roughage for ruminant livestock


Extrusion chemical residue levels

Extrusion - Chemical Residue Levels


Extrusion aflatoxin levels

Extrusion – Aflatoxin Levels


Extrusion gossypol levels

Resulting Questions

What portion of the gossypol remains with the meal if the product is pressed?

Will adding urea and/or starch prior to processing affect the levels?

How good are the Official Methods of the American Oil Chemists Society for determining free gossypol?

Extrusion – Gossypol Levels


Gin by products value added processing

Gin By-Products Value-Added Processing

Sizing

Sorting

Grinding

Densifying

Fiberizing

Machinery Wear


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

Gin By-Products

Erosion Control Products

  • Cotton gin byproducts can be made into products for erosion control & grass seed establishment.


Cotton bale moisture meters

Cotton Bale Moisture Meters

Manufacturer Model Approximate price ($ US)

Delmhorst Instrument Co.

C-2000 meter $370

30-E/C probe $85

Strandberg Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

M-200C analog meter $870

LP-20 probe $190

SP-20 probe $190

M-400 digital meter $900

Aqua-Boy

BAF1 meter, with cable $1250

218 screw-in probe $650

209BSM probe, with adapter $240


Development of an asabe cotton gin emission factor standard

Development of an ASABE Cotton Gin Emission Factor Standard


Customer education through gin schools and workshops

Customer Education Through Gin Schools and Workshops


Lubbock cris 6208 66000 001 00d

Lubbock - CRIS 6208-66000-001-00D

  • Project Title: Improving Air Quality of Agricultural Operations and Processes

    • Established: January 2005

    • Vision: To become the top research laboratory for the study of particulate matter as it relates to agricultural processes and operations.

    • Mission:Through research, to understand the processes of air pollution emissions from agricultural enterprises and the effects of air quality upon agriculture, to develop and test control measures, and to provide decision aids that will be useful in minimizing and reducing agricultural air pollution emissions and predicting and mitigating the impacts of air quality upon agriculture.

    • Objectives and Approach: Dr. Buser will discuss in his presentation.

    • National Programs: 70% NP-203; 30% NP-306

    • #SY: 1.05 {Buser 75%, Holt 15%, Vacant 10%, Pelletier 5%}

    • Allocated Budget: $210,837 – Gross

      • Rely heavily on temp and soft dollars {e.g. FY04 ~ $430,000, FY05 to 08 ~ $130,000/year, FY09 ~ $460,000}


Air quality laboratory

Air Quality Laboratory

  • 1,500 ft2 laboratory

    • PSD analysis

      • 2 Coulter Counter Multisizer III

      • 1 LS-230

      • 1 RapidVue

  • Environmental Chamber

    • Gravimetric Analysis

    • Particle Density Analysis

  • 9 workstations

    • 1 Biological Science Technicians

    • 8 Biological Science Aides


Environmental chamber

Environmental Chamber

  • Constant conditions

    • Temp – 21 +/- 2 oC

    • RH – 35 +/- 5%

  • 2 helium displacement particle density analyzers

    • Interfaces with balance

  • 2 Mettler Toledo balance

    • Accuracy +/- 0.01 mg

  • 2 Mettler Toledo microbalance

    • Accuracy +/- 1 mg

    • Interfaces with laptop

  • 2 Antistatic devices

  • All instruments are on marble tables to enhance stability


Air quality laboratory1

Air Quality Laboratory

  • PSD analysis – 2 Coulter Counter Multisizer III

    • Processed about 11,000 samples since June 1, 2004

    • Analysis time varies as a function of filter loading

    • Best to use Teflon filters

  • RapidVue Particle Shape Analyzer

    • Processed about 50 samples since June 15, 2009

  • LS-230 Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer

    • Processed about 400 samples since June 15, 2009

  • Methanol Lithium Chloride

    • 3 Filtration systems

      • 0.2 mm final filter

    • All electrolyte is recycled


Air quality mobile unit

Air Quality Mobile Unit

  • Samplers

    • 4 – TEOMs with the Accu system

    • 1 – High volume PM10 samplers

    • 4 – High volume TSP samplers

    • 6 – Vertical elutriators

    • 2 – Method 5 stack sampling systems

      • 3 – Method 5 nozzle sets

      • 3 - Method 201 sampling heads (PM10)

      • 2 – CTM-027 sampling head (PM2.5)

    • 12 – 10 meter towers with 6 low volume PM samplers and 6 anemometers per tower

      • 72 sampling points

    • 57 – Low volume TSP samplers

      • 135 TSP sampler heads

      • 12 PM10 sampler heads

      • 12 PM10/PM2.5 (WINS) sampler heads

      • 12 PM10/PM2.5 (VSCC) sampler heads


Usda ars tamu low volume sampler heads

USDA-ARS/TAMU Low Volume Sampler Heads


Usda ars low volume tsp samplers

USDA-ARS Low Volume TSP Samplers

  • New design

    • 10 bit AD

    • Feedback control for flow rate

    • Proportional value used to regulate flow

    • 256 megabyte onboard storage

    • Wireless network

    • Onboard micro-controllers

    • Air flow, wind speed, wind direction, RH, Temperature, and Barometric Pressure recorded with one system

    • Reduced data handling due to software design


Lubbock cris 6208 66000 001 00d1

Lubbock - CRIS 6208-66000-001-00D

  • Project Title: Improving Air Quality of Agricultural Operations and Processes

    • Objective 1: Develop scientifically sound agricultural particulate matter emission factors.

      • Sub-objective 1A. Develop PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) emission factors for cotton gin process stream exhausts.

      • Sub-objective 1B. Reduce EPA’s defined uncertainty associated with PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 microns) and total particulate cotton gin process stream exhaust emission factors published in EPA’s AP-42.

      • Sub-objective 1C. Determine the particulate matter and gaseous emissions emitted when burning various blends of typical low sulfur content diesel and PBSY (prime bleachable summer yellow) or RBD (refined, bleached, and deodorized) cottonseed oil.

    • Objective 2: Develop and evaluate abatement technologies and/or management practices for controlling agricultural particulate matter emissions.

      • Sub-objective 2A. Evaluate current and potential abatement technologies for reducing agricultural point source emissions based on a standardized protocol.

      • Sub-objective 2B. Develop point source abatement technology enhancements based on computational fluid dynamics modeling.

      • Sub-objective 2C. Develop an abatement technology to reduce the particulate matter emissions produced by tree-nut harvesting equipment.

    • Objective 3: Develop and evaluate technologies and/or methodologies for measuring, characterizing, and classifying agricultural particulate matter emissions.

      • Sub-objective 3A. Quantify the errors associated with PM10 and PM2.5 stack sampling methodologies when exposed to agricultural particulate matter.

      • Sub-objective 3B. Quantify the errors associated with PM10 and PM2.5 federal reference method ambient samplers when exposed to agricultural particulate matter.

      • Sub-objective 3C. Develop a robust data set for cotton gin emissions that can be used in the design, development, and evaluation of current and future air quality low-level dispersion models.

      • Sub-objective 3D. Develop an economic and enhanced airflow feedback control and data logging system that can be integrated in low-volume ambient sampling.


Bio diesel project

Bio-Diesel Project


Abatement device system evaluations

Abatement Device/System Evaluations


Evaluation system

Evaluation System

Investigators

Dr. Buser

Dr. Whitelock

Mr. Boykin

Funding

Cotton Inc.

Kimbell Gin Machinery


Fine collection efficiency

Fine Collection Efficiency


Series cyclone test livestock feed supplement processing plant

Series Cyclone Test – Livestock Feed Supplement Processing Plant

  • Reduced emissions by 98.7%

  • Increased Revenues by

    • $1,889.25 per day

    • $470,423.25 per year (based on 249 operating days)


Abatement devices for nut harvesters

Abatement Devices forNut Harvesters


Cfd modeling nut harvester abatement devices

CFD Modeling - Nut Harvester Abatement Devices


National cotton gin stack and ambient particulate matter sampling campaign

National Cotton Gin Stack and Ambient Particulate Matter Sampling Campaign

Michael Buser

USDA-ARS, Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit

Lubbock, TX

Derek Whitelock

USDA-ARS, Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory

Mesilla Park, NM

Clif Boykin

USDA-ARS, Cotton Ginning Research Unit

Stoneville, MS


Objectives

Objectives

  • Develop PM2.5 emission factors and verify current PM10 & TSP emission factors for cotton gins.

  • Development of particulate matter data sets that can be used in the design, development, and evaluation of current and future air quality dispersion models.

  • Characterize the particulate matter emitted from cotton gins across the cotton belt in terms of particle size distribution, particle density, and particle shape.

  • Collect field data to further quantify PM10 and PM2.5 EPA federal reference method stack and ambient sampler errors .


Why such a large project

Why such a large project?


Emission factors stack sampling

Emission Factors – Stack Sampling

Current Regulatory PM2.5 Estimates ~ 36% of TSP

Current USDA-ARS PM2.5 Estimates ~ < 5% of TSP


Dispersion modeling

Dispersion Modeling

Current models are estimated to over-predict by a factor of 10


Pm characteristics

PM Characteristics


Errors associated with pm stack ambient samplers

PM

Over

-

10

Source

Sampling Rate

Cotton Gin

181 %

Cattle Feed Yard

185 %

Almond Harvesting

139 %

Errors Associated with PM Stack & Ambient Samplers

Ambient

Stack


Questions

Questions

  • Health based studies – are the PM data used in the studies comparable?

    • Are we comparing apples to apples?

  • If I stand at the property line that separates Plant A and B will Plant B’s (higher PM10 sampler based concentration) emissions more negatively impact my health?

  • If I’m evaluating regional PM air quality models using FRM PM sampler concentrations, how good are my modeling results?

    • Garbage in – garbage out

  • Are these plants being equally regulated?

  • How will you answer the same questions for PM2.5?

    • The PSD differences are greater

C=54 mg/dscm

C=60 mg/dscm


Cotton gin sampling campaigns

Cotton Gin Sampling Campaigns


Financial supporters

Financial Supporters

  • Cotton Incorporated - $10,000 (2008)

  • Cotton Incorporated - $40,000 (2009)

  • Cotton Incorporated - $40,000 (2010)

  • Texas State Support Committee - $50,000 (2009)

  • Texas State Support Committee - $50,000 (2010)

  • California Air Resources Board - $45,000

  • San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District - $36,000

  • Cotton Foundation - $10,000 (2009)

  • Cotton Foundation - $20,000 (2010) - Pending

  • Southern Cotton Ginners Association - $15,000

  • Texas Cotton Ginners Association - $7,500

  • California Cotton Ginners and Growers Association - $7,500

  • Southeastern Cotton Ginners Association - $7,500

  • ******** LEVERAGING INDUSTRY SUPPORT **************

  • USDA-ARS – personal salaries (2008, 2009, 2010, & 2011)

    • Estimated personnel cost for 2008-2011 ~ $700,000

  • USDA-ARS – estimated overhead waived ~ $50,000

  • Still Working on securing approximately $300,000


Collaborators

Collaborators

  • USDA-ARS Ginning Laboratories

    • Michael Buser – Lubbock, TX

    • Derek Whitelock – Mesilla Park, NM

    • Clif Boykin – Stoneville, MS

  • Texas A&M University

  • Texas, California, Southern, Southeastern, and National Ginners Associations

  • Cotton Incorporated

  • Primary and alternate gins selected for the study

  • California Air Resources Board

  • San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District

  • Texas Commission on Environmental Quality

  • Missouri Department of Environmental Quality

  • North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality

  • EPA (National, Region 9, and Region 4)


Current sampling plan

Current Sampling Plan

  • Site Location

    • Fall 2008 – Mesa Farmers Gin – NM

    • Summer 2009 – 1 Gin – South TX

    • Fall 2009 – 2 Gins – CA (1 Saw & 1 Roller)

    • Fall 2010 – 1 Gin – West TX

    • Fall 2010 – 1 Gin – MO

    • Fall 2011 – 1 Gin – NC

      ***Tentative

  • Sampling Time

    • 12 to 15 days for stack sampling (est. 16 hrs/day)

    • 12 to 20 days for ambient sampling (24 hrs/day)

      • Ambient and stack sampling will overlap

  • Laboratory Analysis Time

    • Pre-test time (sampler repairs, filter pre-weights) ~ 65 working days/site

    • Post-test time (filter weights, PSD, etc.) ~ 230 working days/site

      • ~ 3,200 sample weights (filters & wash)

      • ~ 3,200 particle size analyses

      • ~ 200 particle shape analyses


Stack sampling

Stack Sampling


Stack sampling1

Stack Sampling


Stack sampling2

Stack Sampling


Ambient sampling

Ambient Sampling


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

30o

~300 feet

~300 feet

~300 feet

Tower Sampler {PM sampler heads and anemometers located at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.5, 7.25, and 10.0 meters}

Stand Alone Sampler {PM sampler head located at 2.0 meters}


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

Generator (11)

Electrical Service (3)

Electrical Cords (~ 8,000 feet)


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

2 Tower Sites:

1 – TEOM

2 – PM10 Samplers

2 – PM2.5 Samplers

1 - Tower


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

2 Tower Sites:

1 – TEOM

1 – PM10 Samplers

1 – PM2.5 Samplers

1 - Tower


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

8 Tower Sites: (Target)

1 – PM10 Samplers

1 – PM2.5 Samplers

1 – Tower


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

24 Stand Alone Sites: (Target)

1 – TSP Samplers

*** 21 Sites @ Mesa


Ambient setup

Ambient Setup


The team

The Team


The team1

The Team


Developing a nationally recognized program within usda agricultural research service

Research at the USDA-ARS Cotton Ginning Research Units


Buser s osu research extension interest s

Buser’s OSU Research & Extension Interests

  • Become a contributing OSU team member

    • Actively participate in team meetings to determine how my expertise can most effectively advance the team goals.

  • Work closely with stakeholders

    • Actively participate in workshops

  • Develop collaborative projects with other universities, federal agencies, and industry

    • Advance team goals

  • Research interests

    • Logistics

    • Harvesting

    • Processing

    • Packaging/transportation

    • Emissions (e.g., carbon credits)


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