Day 5 catholicism moves ahead
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 47

Day 5 Catholicism Moves Ahead PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 32 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Day 5 Catholicism Moves Ahead. Lessons 6 and 7. Catholic Monarchs. The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos )[1] is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile[2] and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.

Download Presentation

Day 5 Catholicism Moves Ahead

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

Day 5Catholicism Moves Ahead

Lessons 6 and 7


Catholic monarchs

Catholic Monarchs

  • The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: Reyes Católicos)[1] is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile[2] and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.

  • Their marriage united both crowns under the same family. John Elliot and many other historians consider that the unification of Spain can essentially be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, but newer historical opinions recognize that under their rule Spain was still a composite monarchy.

  • Castile and Aragon remained largely separate entities for decades to come. The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was constantly on the move, in order to bolster local support for the crown from local feudal lords.

  • The title of "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on them by Pope Alexander VI in 1496, for defending Catholic dogmas within their realms.

Portuguese King John II ruled 1481-1495


Reconquista

Reconquista

  • The Reconquista ("reconquest")[a][b] is a period of approximately 781 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, from the first Islamic invasion in 711 to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492.

  • The Reconquista corresponds to, and is named for, a period of expansion of the Christian states of the peninsula at the expense of the Muslim states, collectively known as al-Andalus. It comes after the period of the Visigothic kingdom, which had collapsed under pressure from the armies invading from Africa. These two periods together constitute the Middle Ages of Iberian history. It comes before the period of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires after the discovery of the New World.

  • Traditionally, the Reconquista begins with the Battle of Covadonga (in either 718 or 722), in which a Visigothic élite, Pelagius, defeated an Islamic army and established his authority over a region in the north of the peninsula, the Kingdom of Asturias.


Fifth council of the lateran

Fifth Council of the Lateran

  • The Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517) was the last Ecumenical council of the Catholic Church before reformation.

  • Little was done to put the work of the council into practice. Whether or not the Protestant Reformation could have been avoided if the reforms had been implemented is a matter of debate. Martin Luther's promulgation of the 95 theses occurred just seven months after the close of the Council.


Lesson 6

Lesson 6:

  • Become familiar with the Council of Trent as a response to the Protestant Reformation

  • Identify: Counter-Reformation, Teresa of Avila, Council of Trent, Francisco Ximenez de Cisneros, Inquisition

  • Understand the Roman Catholic missionary movement from the 16th to the 18th centuries as a background to the beginnings of Christianity in many countries

  • Discuss why the Roman Catholics led the way in the missionary efforts in the 16th and 17th centuries

  • Analyze the interrelationship between the Roman Catholic Church and colonization in the expansion of Christianity under the Spanish and Portuguese

  • Discuss the rise and organizational development of the Jesuits in the 16th century. What kind of a person and leader was Ignatius Loyola?

  • Compare him to Luther and the other Reformers, and identify: Ignatius Loyola (1495-1556); Spiritual Exercises; Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

  • Compare and contrast the Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits in the 16th and 17th centuries, and critique the orders’ understanding of “evangelization”

  • Identify: patronato real


Lesson 7

Lesson 7:

  • Describe some of the ways Spain and Portugal evangelized in the Americas, and compare and contrast the approaches of the Spanish and the Portuguese, and the Protestants

  • Identify Bartolomé de Las Casas

  • Better understand the issues of contextualizing the gospel today in their own contexts, and better understand the issues involved in accepting or rejecting cultural customs

  • Identify: Francis Xavier (1506-52), Domingo Salazar (1512-94), Alejandro Valignano (1539- 1606), Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), Robert De Nobili, (1577-1656), Adam Schall (1592-1666), the Shimabara Rebellion (1637-38), the Rites Controversy

  • Understand reasons for the early growth of Christianity in various countries


The counter reformation

The Counter-Reformation

  • (also the Catholic Revival[1] or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), which is sometimes considered a response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements:

  • Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration

  • Religious orders

  • Spiritual movements

  • Political dimensions

  • Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ, including the Spanish mystics and the French school of spirituality. It also involved political activities that included the Roman Inquisition.


Council of trent

Council of Trent

  • The Council of Trent (Latin: Concilium Tridentinum) was an Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils.[1] It convened in Trento, Italy, then the capital of the Prince-Bishopric of Trent of the Holy Roman Empire, between 13 December 1545, and 4 December 1563 in twenty-five sessions for three periods. During the pontificate of Pope Paul III, the Council fathers met for the first eight sessions in Trento (1545–47), and for the ninth to eleventh sessions in Bologna (1547).[2] Under Pope Julius III, the Council met in Trento (1551–52) for the twelfth to sixteenth sessions, and under Pope Pius IV, the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions took place in Trento (1559–63).

  • The Council issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies at the time of the Reformation and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints. It issued numerous reform decrees.[3] By specifying Catholic doctrine on salvation, the sacraments, and the Biblical canon, the Council was answering Protestant disputes.[1] The Council entrusted to the Pope the implementation of its work; as a result, Pope Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed in 1565; and Pope Pius V issued in 1566 the Roman Catechism, in 1568 a revised Roman Breviary, and in 1570 a revised Roman Missal. Through these the Tridentine Mass was standardised (named after the city's Latin name Tridentum). In 1592, Pope Clement VIII issued a revised edition of the Vulgate Bible.[4]

  • The Council of Trent, delayed and interrupted several times because of political or religious disagreements, was a major reform council; it was an embodiment of the ideals of the Counter-Reformation.[4] More than 300 years passed until the next Ecumenical Council. When announcing Vatican II, Pope John XXIII stated that the precepts of the Council of Trent continue to the modern day, a position that was reaffirmed by Pope Paul VI.[5]


Become familiar with the council of trent 1547 as a response to the protestant reformation

Become familiar with the Council of Trent (1547) as a response to the Protestant Reformation

  • Not just one council

  • Formed several times to deal with schism (breaking) and Protestant concerns

  • Scripture and Tradition are equally valid for finding truth.

  • The Church is the only authority to interpret Scripture

  • Latin is the authorized version of the Bible

  • Seven sacraments

  • Laity will only have bread during communion

  • People have free will

  • Good works must follow conversion or conversion did not really happen

  • 10 Commandments are important and cannot be thrown away

  • Christ was law giver (not law breaker) as well as Redeemer

  • Said once saved always saves was false doctrine

  • There are more sins that lead to hell than just unbelief.

  • Transubstantiation of the elements is true (Christ's body and blood really is there).

  • Latin Mass was important (no use of vernacular)

  • Purgatory exists

  • The Roman Pope is the head of the church (this was disputed)

  • Abolished indulgences

  • Said clergy could not be married (this also was disputed)


Teresa of vila

Teresa of Ávila

  • also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada, (March 28, 1515 – October 4, 1582) was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, writer of the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be a founder of the Discalced Carmelites along with John of the Cross.

  • In 1622, forty years after her death, she was canonized by Pope Gregory XV and in September 27, 1970 was named a Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI.[6] Her books, which include her autobiography (The Life of Teresa of Jesus) and her seminal work El Castillo Interior (trans.: The Interior Castle) are an integral part of Spanish Renaissance literature as well as Christian mysticism and Christian meditation practices as she entails in her other important work, Camino de Perfección (trans.: The Way of Perfection).


Francisco jim nez de cisneros

Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros

  • , O.F.M. (1436 – November 8, 1517), known as Ximénes de Cisneros in his own lifetime, was a Spanish cardinal and statesman.[1] Starting from humble beginnings he rose to the heights of power becoming a religious reformer, twice regent of Spain, Cardinal, Grand Inquisitor, missionary of the Moors, promoted the Crusades in North Africa, and founded the Complutense University (currently the largest in Spain). Among his literary works he is best known for funding the Complutensian Polyglot Bible, the first printed polyglot of the entire Bible. He also edited and published the first printed editions of the missal (in 1500) and the breviary (in 1502) of the Mozarabic rite and established a chapel with a college of thirteen priests to celebrate the Mozarabic divine office and mass each day in the Cathedral of Toledo.

  • Cardinal Cisneros' life coincided with and greatly influenced a dynamic period in Spanish history during the reign of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile when Spain underwent many significant changes, leading it into its prominent role in the Golden Age of Empire (1500–1700). Modern historian John Elliott said as far as any particular policies that can be attributed to Spain's rise "they were those of Ferdinand and Cardinal Cisneros."


Inquisition

Inquisition

  • The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy. It started in 12th-century France to combat the spread of religious sectarianism, in particular the Cathars and the Waldensians. This Medieval Inquisition persisted into the 14th century, from the 1250s associated with the Dominican Order. In the early 14th century, two other movements attracted the attention of the Inquisition, the Knights Templar and the Beguines.

  • At the end of the Middle Ages, the concept and scope of the Inquisition was significantly expanded, now in the historical context of the turmoils of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. Its geographic scope was expanded to other European countries,[1] as well as throughout the Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas, Asia and Africa.[2] Its focus now came to include the persecution of sorcery (an aspect almost entirely absent from the Medieval Inquisition), making it one of the agents in the Early Modern witch-hunts.

  • The institution persisted after the end of the witch-trial period in the 18th century, but was abolished outside of the Papal States after the Napoleonic wars. The institution survives as part of the Roman Curia, but it was renamed to Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office in 1904.


Patronato real divided world

Patronato Real – Divided World

SPAIN

PORTUGAL


Patronato real

Patronato Real

System where the monarchs controlled the religious practice in their countries.

They gave land rewards to those who were loyal, which made monks, priests, etc., try to be very loyal.

However, this also meant that spiritual leaders often wasted lots of time trying to make sure their lands were productive rather than harvesting souls.

It also decreased loyalty to the Pope and increased loyalty to the crown.


Conquistadors

Conquistadors

  • Conquistadors (/kɒn.ˈkiːstədɔrz/; from Spanish conquistadores [koŋkistaˈðoɾes], "conquerors") were soldiers, explorers, and adventurers at the service of the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire.

  • The name derived from the Reconquista (completed in 1492), the reconquest of the territory of the Iberian Peninsula that had been controlled by various Muslim states (known through much of that time as Al-Andalus).

  • They sailed beyond Europe, conquering territory and opening trade routes. They colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries.


Patronato system

Patronato System

  • The Patronato (literally: "Patronage") system in Spain (and a similar padroado system in Portugal) was the expression of royal patronage controlling major appointments of Church officials and the management of Church revenues, under terms of concordats with the Holy See. The resulting structure of royal power and ecclesiastical privileges, was formative in the Spanish colonial empire. It resulted in a characteristic constant intermingling of trade, politics, and religion.[1]

  • The counterweight to the patronato system was provided by Jesuit missions, whose allegiance lay with the hierarchy of their Order, directly responsible to the Pope. The beneficiaries of the Portuguese padroado opposed the authority of the vicars apostolic in the Asian missions.

  • In the successor states to the colonial empires, the conservative Establishment of Church and ruling class continues to be referred to as the patronato.


Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

Understand the Roman Catholic missionary movement from the 16th to the 18th centuries as a background to the beginnings of Christianity in many countries.

  • Portugal and Spain were the only ones allowed to explore or evangelize America and Africa.

  • The world was divided between Portugal and Spain.

    • Spain got the Americas

    • Portugal got Africa and Brazil

  • The two countries used politics combined with religion to spread Christianity. This led to abuses as leaders were not as spiritual, and many workers were going to the Americas just to get rich, not to evangelize.

  • As time went on the two countries became more burdened with mission work and it declined as finances declined.

  • This led to the formation of other Catholic groups that would go and work alongside the current missions.


Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

Understand the Roman Catholic missionary movement from the 16th to the 18th centuries as a background to the beginnings of Christianity in many countries.

  • Many missionaries did not like the slavery and conditions that the Indians were forced into. (Bartolome de las Casas)

  • But the Patronato Real (dividing the new world between Spain and Portugal) system allowed kings and queens to give land, slaves, and wealth to those who served them well, including religious leaders. So there was lots of pressure not to get rid of slavery, and to continue to mistreat the Indians.

  • Indians were not trained up to take religious leadership.

  • Indians were treated like children, not respected, and not given opportunities.

  • Indians were taken advantage of in "encomiendas" - plantations.

  • Slaves were brought by Spain from the Portuguese African nations


  • Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

    Discuss why the Roman Catholics led the way in the missionary efforts in the 16th and 17th centuries

    • The reformation allowed the new orders to become aggressive about spreading their version of the Gospel so that Protestant influence would be small.

    • As the Spanish and Portuguese met new people in new places there was an interest in helping them know Christ. During the Middle Ages there was not much focus outside of Europe.


    Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

    Analyze the interrelationship between the Roman Catholic Church and colonization in the expansion of Christianity under the Spanish and Portuguese

    • At first the Roman Catholic Church supported Spain and Portugal and just asked them to go and evangelize and take charge.

    • Over time abuses and a decline in interest in missions work led to more support of the mission by Rome itself.

    • Overall Catholic missions seemed to be sending Europeans to do everything overseas, and not training up local people to do the work.


    Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

    Discuss the rise and organizational development of the Jesuits in the 16th century. What kind of a person and leader was Ignatius Loyola?

    • Ignatius Loyala began the Jesuit movement which was: militant, committed, loyal to the Pope and not monarchs, and religiously empowered.

    • Jesuits tried to allow local customs and ideas to stay the same and introduced Christianity with as little change to culture as necessary. Other orders seemed to demand becoming like Europeans in order to be saved.

    • Loyola believed that intelligence and belief can work together to produce amazing works in the lives of people. He also believed in loyalty as a key quality, and pledged his loyalty top the Pope.


    Ignatius of loyola

    Ignatius of Loyola

    • (Basque: Ignazio Loiolakoa, Spanish: Ignacio de Loyola) (ca. October 27, 1491[1] – July 31, 1556) was a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General.[2] Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by absolute obedience to the Pope.[3]

    • After being seriously wounded in the Battle of Pamplona in 1521, he underwent a spiritual conversion while in recovery. De Vita Christi by Ludolph of Saxony inspired Loyola to abandon his previous military life and devote himself to labour for God, following the example of spiritual leaders such as Francis of Assisi. He experienced a vision of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus while at the shrine of Our Lady of Montserrat in March 1522. Thereafter he went to Manresa, where he began praying for seven hours a day, often in a nearby cave, while formulating the fundamentals of the Spiritual Exercises. In September 1523, Loyola reached the Holy Land to settle there, but was sent back to Europe by the Franciscans.

    • Between 1524 and 1537, Ignatius studied theology and Latin in the University of Alcalá and then in Paris. In 1534, he arrived in the latter city during a period of anti-Protestant turmoil which forced John Calvin to flee France. Ignatius and a few followers bound themselves by vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. In 1539, they formed the Society of Jesus, approved in 1540 by Pope Paul III, as well as his Spiritual Exercises approved in 1548. Loyola also composed the Constitutions of the Society. He died in July 1556, was beatified by Pope Paul V in 1609, canonized by Pope Gregory XV in 1622, and declared patron of all spiritual retreats by Pope Pius XI in 1922. Ignatius' feast day is celebrated on July 31. Ignatius is a foremost patron saint of soldiers, the Society of Jesus, the Basque Country, and the provinces of Gipuzkoa and Biscay.[4]


    Compare him to luther and the other reformers

    Compare him to Luther and the other Reformers

    • Loyola believed in loyalty to the church - of course he lived during the counter-reformation time so there was more hope of positive change within the church.

    • Luther wanted reform, but was rejected, then excommunicated. Luther then wanted no part or reunion with the Catholic Church.

    • Calvin and Zwingli might have been slightly interested in reuniting, but change in the Catholic Church was so slow that it discouraged reunion.

  • Erasmus wanted reform, but wanted to do so within the church, and was not string enough to stand up and fight. He stayed quiet and had lesser impact and was distrusted by all sides


  • Lesson 71

    Lesson 7:

    • Describe some of the ways Spain and Portugal evangelized in the Americas, and compare and contrast the approaches of the Spanish and the Portuguese, and the Protestants

    • Identify Bartolomé de Las Casas

    • Better understand the issues of contextualizing the gospel today in their own contexts, and better understand the issues involved in accepting or rejecting cultural customs

    • Identify: Francis Xavier (1506-52), Domingo Salazar (1512-94), Alejandro Valignano (1539- 1606), Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), Robert De Nobili, (1577-1656), Adam Schall (1592-1666), the Shimabara Rebellion (1637-38), the Rites Controversy

    • Understand reasons for the early growth of Christianity in various countries


    Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

    Describe some of the ways Spain and Portugal evangelized in the Americas, and compare and contrast the approaches of the Spanish and the Portuguese, and the Protestants

    • See last lesson for Spanish and Portuguese.

    • Protestants were mostly in Northern Europe. They were not part of the expanding kingdoms of Spain, Portugal and France, and therefore had little contact with other cultures and people that did not know about Christ.

    • Protestants were busy fighting each other over who had the best doctrine, the "right" doctrine, and were thus unable to think much about foreign missions.

    • Many Protestant leaders showed no interest in foreign missions. Many believed that if God wanted foreign people saved, He was more than capable of doing it Himself -no need for us to help!


    Bartolom de las casas

    Bartolomé de Las Casas:

    • Spanish monk that realized many things were not right with the encomienda (plantation) system.

    • He decided to fight against the slavery of Indians, the mistreatment of Indians, and fight for the equality of Indians.


    Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

    Better understand the issues of contextualizing the gospel today in their own contexts, and better understand the issues involved in accepting or rejecting cultural customs

    • How has the Christian message been made to fit Solomon island lifestyle?

    • Is "custom" and "Christian" in opposition to each other, or can you be "custom" and "Christian?"

      • Do these two systems have much in common? List what they have in common.

      • Are these two systems in conflict? If so, list reasons why.

      • Should there be a wall between the two? Explain why.


    Francis xavier

    Francis Xavier

    • Francis Xavier, born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta (7 April 1506 – 3 December 1552), was a Roman Catholic missionary born in Xavier, Kingdom of Navarre (now part of Spain), and co-founder of the Society of Jesus.

    • He was a student of Ignatius of Loyola and one of the first seven Jesuits, dedicated at Montmartre in 1534.[1]

    • He led an extensive mission into Asia, mainly in the Portuguese Empire of the time.

    • He was influential in the spreading and upkeep of Catholicism most notably in India, but also ventured into Japan, Borneo, the Maluku Islands, and other areas which had thus far not been visited by Christian missionaries.

    • In these areas, being a pioneer and struggling to learn the local languages in the face of opposition, he had less success than he had enjoyed in India.

    • It was a goal of Xavier to one day reach China.


    Spanish armada

    Spanish Armada

    • The Spanish Armada (Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada or Armada Invencible, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or "Invincible Fleet") was the Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and putting an end to her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands and in privateering in the Atlantic and Pacific.

    • The Armada reached and anchored outside Gravelines, but, while awaiting communications from the Duke of Parma's army, it was driven out by an English fire ship attack. In the ensuing battle, the Spanish fleet was forced to abandon its rendezvous. The Armada managed to regroup and withdraw north, with the English fleet harrying it for some distance up the east coast of England. The commander decided that the fleet should return to Spain; it sailed around Scotland and Ireland, but severe storms disrupted it. More than 24 vessels were wrecked on the western coasts of Ireland. Of the fleet's initial 130 ships, about fifty never returned to Spain.[citation needed]

    • The expedition was the largest engagement of the undeclared Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604). The following year England organised a similar large-scale campaign against Spain, the Drake-Norris Expedition, also known as the Counter Armada of 1589, which was unsuccessful.


    Thinkers and reformers

    Thinkers and Reformers


    Augustine of hippo

    Augustine of Hippo

    • Augustine of Hippo (/ɔːˈɡʌstɨn/[1][2] or /ˈɔːɡəstɪn/;[2] Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis;[3] 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine or Saint Austin,[4] was an early Christian theologian whose writings are considered very influential in the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was bishop of Hippo Regius (present-day Annaba, Algeria) located in the Roman province of Africa. Writing during the Patristic Era, he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers. Among his most important works are City of God and Confessions, which continue to be read widely today.


    Thomas aquinas

    Thomas Aquinas

    • He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of Thomism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory. The works for which he is best known are the Summa Theologica and the Summa contra Gentiles.


    Franciscans

    Franciscans

    • Franciscans are those people and groups (religious orders) who adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of Saint Francis of Assisi. The term is usually applied to members who also adhere to the Roman Catholic Church. However, other denominations also have members who self describe as Franciscan. They include Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran.

    • The most prominent group is the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called simply the "Franciscans". They seek to follow most directly the manner of life that Saint Francis led. This Order is a mendicant religious order of men tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi. It comprises three separate groups, each considered a religious order in its own right. These are the Observants, most commonly simply called "Franciscan friars", the Capuchins, and the Conventual Franciscans. They all live according to a body of regulations known as "The Rule of St. Francis".[1]


    Dominican order

    Dominican Order

    • Founded to preach the Gospel and to combat heresy, the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers.[citation needed] The Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order, who is currently Father Bruno Cadoré.[2] Members of the order generally carry the letters O.P., standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers, after their names.


    Dominicans

    Dominicans

    • Dominicans, is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Saint Dominic de Guzman in France, and approved by Pope Honorius III (1216–27) on 22 December 1216. Membership in the Order includes friars,[1] nuns, active sisters, and lay or secular Dominicans (formerly known as tertiaries) affiliated with the Order.

    • Founded to preach the Gospel and to combat heresy, the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers.

      • In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as Black Friars because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits.[5] Dominicans were Blackfriars, as opposed to Whitefriars (for example, the Carmelites) or Greyfriars (for example, Franciscans). They are also distinct from the Augustinian Friars (the Austin friars) who wear a similar habit.

      • In France, the Dominicans were known as Jacobins, because their convent in Paris was attached to the church of Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas,[6] (St. James) Sanctus Jacobus in Latin.

      • Their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the Domini canes, or Hounds of the Lord.


    Society of jesus

    Society of Jesus

    • The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes and promote social justice and ecumenical dialogue.

    • Ignatius of Loyola founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Bl. Peter Faber, gathered and professed vows of poverty, chastity, and later obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope. Rule 13 of Ignatius's Rules for Thinking with the Church said: "That we may be altogether of the same mind and in conformity [...], if [the Church] shall have defined anything to be black which to our eyes appears to be white, we ought in like manner to pronounce it to be black."[2] Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by the bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".

    • Because of the military background of Ignatius and the members' willingness to accept orders anywhere in the world and to live in extreme conditions where required, the opening lines of this founding document would declare that the Society of Jesus was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God"[3] (Spanish: "todo el que quiera militar para Dios"),[4] "to strive especially for the defense and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine."[5] Therefore Jesuits are sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's Soldiers"[6] or "God's Marines".[7] The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and later in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council in the Catholic Church.


    The spiritual exercises

    The Spiritual Exercises

    • The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola, (composed from 1522-1524) are a set of Christian meditations, prayers and mental exercises, divided into four thematic 'weeks' of variable length, designed to be carried out over a period of 28 to 30 days.[1] (four major themes: sin, the life of Jesus, the Passion of Jesus, and the Resurrection of Jesus). They were composed with the intention of helping the retreatant to discern Jesus in his life, leading him or her to a personal commitment to follow him. Though the underlying spiritual outlook is Catholic, the exercises can also be undertaken by non-Catholics. The 'Spiritual Exercises' booklet was formally approved in 1548 by Paul III.[2]


    Thomas cajetan

    Thomas Cajetan

    • (pronounced Ca-'je-tan), also known as Gaetanus, commonly Tommaso de Vio (20 February 1469 - 9 August 1534), was an Italian philosopher, theologian, cardinal (from 1517 until his death) and the Master of the Order of Preachers 1508-18. He was a leading theologian of his day who is now best known as the spokesman for Catholic opposition to the teachings of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation while he was the Pope's Legate in Wittenberg, and perhaps also among Catholics for his extensive commentary on the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas.[1]


    John colet

    John Colet

    • John Colet (January 1467 – 10 September 1519) was an English churchman and educational pioneer.

    • Colet was an English scholar, Renaissance humanist, theologian, and Dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral, London. Colet wanted people to see the scripture as their guide through life. Furthermore, he wanted to restore theology and rejuvenate Christianity. Colet is an important early leader of Christian humanism as he linked humanism and reform. Colet influenced Erasmus, a key figure in Christian humanism.


    Gasparo contarini

    Gasparo Contarini

    • Gasparo Contarini (16 October 1483 – 24 August 1542) was an Italian diplomat, cardinal and Bishop of Belluno. He was one of the first proponents of the dialogue with Protestants, after the Reformation.


    Pope paul iii

    Pope Paul III

    • Pope Paul III (Latin: Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was the head of the Catholic Church from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation. During his pontificate, and in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation, new Catholic religious orders and societies, such as the Jesuits, the Barnabites, and the Congregation of the Oratory, attracted a popular following. He convened the Council of Trent in 1545. He was a significant patron of the arts and employed nepotism to advance the power and fortunes of his family. It is to Pope Paul III that Nicolaus Copernicus dedicated De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres).


    Pope sixtus v

    Pope Sixtus V

    • Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was the head of the Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590.[1][2] He is the last Pope to take the name "Sixtus" upon his election.

    • As Sixtus lay on his death bed, he was loathed by his political subjects, but history has recognized him as a significant figure in the Counter Reformation. On the negative side, he could be impulsive, obstinate, severe, and autocratic. On the positive side, he was open to large ideas and threw himself into his undertakings with great energy and determination. This often led to success. His pontificate saw great enterprises and great achievements. He slept little and worked hard. Having inherited a bankrupt treasury, he administered his funds with competence and care, and left five million crowns in the coffers of the Holy See at his death.


    Questions

    Questions

    • 1. Read one of the parables of Jesus. Write it as if Jesus was born in your home town and visiting back in your home town.

    • 2. Write what you know about how missionaries did the right thing and then write about how they did the wrong things here in your country.

    • 3. If you were sent as a missionary to New Caledonia, which kind of missionary style would you use?


    Day 5 catholicism moves ahead

    Quiz


    Comparison

    Comparison


  • Login