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NSS Chemistry Elective Analytical Chemistry PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NSS Chemistry Elective Analytical Chemistry. Chan T.W. Dominic Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Importance of Analytical Chemistry in Hong Kong. Chemistry-related jobs in HK. Government Laboratory Testing Laboratories Jockey Club Racing Laboratory

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NSS Chemistry Elective Analytical Chemistry

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NSS Chemistry ElectiveAnalytical Chemistry

Chan T.W. Dominic

Department of Chemistry,

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Importance of Analytical Chemistry in Hong Kong

  • Chemistry-related jobs in HK

  • Government Laboratory

  • Testing Laboratories

    • Jockey Club Racing Laboratory

    • Hospital Laboratory

    • Enviropace Limited

    • Productivity Council

    • Pharmaceutical companies

    • Private laboratories, such as BV, SGS,…etc.

  • Secondary School Teaching

  • Sales and Marketing

Importance of Analytical Chemistry in Hong Kong

  • Undergraduate Curriculum in Chemistry

  • Physical Chemistry

  • Organic Chemistry

  • Inorganic Chemistry

  • Analytical Chemistry

  • Computational Chemistry

¼ - ⅕ weightings

  • Postgraduate Programmes in Chemistry

  • MSc in Analytical Chemistry (HKBU)

  • MPhil / PhD in Analytical Chemistry Disciplines

Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

Detecting the presence of chemical species (Ch 61)

  • Detection of gases

  • (Mostly covered in HKCEE, except the detection of HCl)

  • Detecting the presence of some metal ions by flame tests

  • (Covered in HKCEE)

  • Qualitative analysis of ionic compounds – cations and anions

  • (Mostly covered in HKCEE, except thedetection of Mg2+)

  • Chemical tests for some functional groups of carbon compounds

  • (Functional groups include C=C, −OH, −CHO, >C=O and −COOH)

  • (HKAL: only addition-elimination (condensation) reactions with hydrazines)

  • Separation of a mixture of known substances

  • (Covered in HKCEE)

Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

Separation and purification methods (Ch 62)

  • Separation and purification methods

    • - Crystallization, distillation / fractional distillation, liquid-liquid

    • extraction, column and thin layer chromatography

    • (Mostly covered in HKAL, except column chromatography)

    • - Determine the Rf values of substances in a chromatogram

    • - Justify the choice of an appropriate method used for the

    • separation of substances in a mixture

  • Tests for purity

    • - Determine the melting point or boiling point of a substance

    • - Examine the purity of a substance by measuring its melting

    • or boiling point


Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

Quantitative methods of analysis (Ch 63)

  • Gravimetric analysis

  • Volumetric analysis

  • - (HKCEE: Simple volumetric work involving acids and alkalis)

    • - (HKAL: Acid-base titration and the choice of indicator

  • plus general knowledge acquired from experiments under

  • TAS scheme)

  • Process of a quantitative analysis

Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

Instrumental analytical methods (Ch 64)

  • Colorimetry

  • - (HKAL: Treated briefly in “rate of chemical reaction”)

  • - Construct a calibration curve and use it for the determination of the

  • concentration of an unknown solution

  • Infrared (IR) spectroscopy

  • - (HKAL: Structure determination of organic compounds)

  • - Identify C-H, O-H, N-H, C=C, CΞC. C=O & CΞN from an IR

  • spectrum using a correlation table

  • Mass spectrometry

  • - (HKAL: A brief account of the mass spectrometer in determining

  • relative isotopic, atomic and molecular masses)

  • - Identify R+, RCO+ and C6H5CH2+ from a mass spectrum

Curriculum Comparison between NSS, CE and AL for Analytical Chemistry

The role of analytical chemistry in our daily lives (Ch 66)

  • 1.Analysis of food and drugs

  • Environmental protection

  • The chemistry aspects of forensic science

  • Clinical diagnoses

(Not covered in HKCEE & HKAL)

Overview of Chemical Analysis

Purpose of the analysis

Real Samples:

Mixture Analysis

Separation & Purification


Target Specific Analysis



  • Limit of detection

  • Accuracy of the measurement

  • Uncertainties


Qualitative Analysis

  • Chemical tests for gases, O2, H2, HCl, …

  • Flame test for metal ions

  • Chemical tests for functional groups of organic compounds

  • Identification of common cations and anions

Introduction of Separation Sciences

  • Importance of sample purity for chemical analysis

  • Conventional separation sciences



Liquid-liquid extraction

- Advanced separation methods


(paper chromatography)


(mobile/stationary phases)


Indexing method


Simple classification

(thin-layer & column)

Spectroscopic Analysis


- quantitative analysis

Infrared Spectrometry

– functional group analysis

Mass Spectrometry

-molecular mass measurement and

structural analysis

Web Resources for IR and MSInformation

Spectral Database for Organic Compounds SDBS

- by National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan

University of Wisconsin-Madison – Chemistry Library

NIST Chemistry WebBook

- by National Institute of Standards and Technology

The Role of Analytical Chemistry

Forensic science



Analysis of

food and drugs

Environmental protection



Doping control

Gemstones and Antiques



Analysis of Food and Drugs

  • Residual pesticides in vegetables

  • Malachite green§1 in eel and other fish products

  • Harmful additives in food: e.g. Melamine in milk§2 products

Hong Kong Standard,

23 Sept 2008

  • Related Organizations:

  • Government Laboratory – Forensic Sciences Division

  • Food and Environmental Authority

§1Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1998;12(21):1625-34


Environmental Protection

  • Heavy metal analysis in drinking water

  • Air pollutants, e.g. formaldehyde, NOx, O3, SOx,.. etc

  • Dixoin (75 congeners) and polychlorinated

  • biphenyls (209 congeners) analysis§

  • Related Organizations:

  • -Government Laboratory – Environmental Monitoring Division

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  • Enviropace Limited

  • Greenpeace

  • Water Department

§More information:

The Chemistry Aspects of

Forensic Science

  • Development of latent fingerprints, e.g. Ninhydrin, cyanoacrylate fuming, laser luminescence

  • Body fluid analysis, e.g. DNA fingerprinting

  • Analysis of unknown powders/pills

Andrzej Tokarski/

  • Related Organization:

  • Government Laboratory – Forensic Sciences Division

Clinical Diagnosis

  • A biomarker is a substance that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.

  • e.g.Glucose level  Diabetes

  • Creatinine  Kidney malfunction

  • Dopamine  Parkinson’s disease

Genomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics

  • Related Organizations:

  • Hospital Authority

  • Clinical testing laboratories

Thank you for your attention!

Who should take Analytical Chemistry?

Students with:

  • good mathematical ability: calculations and plot graphs

  • good analytical ability: interpreting different spectra (IR and MS), qualitative analysis

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