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Relationships in Nature. BIO108. Symbiosis. Living together A partnership Two different species Both partners benefit – mutual benefit. Animal Kingdom. Nile crocodile & crocodile bird Hermit crab & sea anemone Buffalo & oxpecker Shark & remora fish. Crocodile & Bird. Nile crocodile

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Presentation Transcript
symbiosis
Symbiosis
  • Living together
  • A partnership
  • Two different species
  • Both partners benefit – mutual benefit
animal kingdom
Animal Kingdom
  • Nile crocodile & crocodile bird
  • Hermit crab & sea anemone
  • Buffalo & oxpecker
  • Shark & remora fish
crocodile bird
Crocodile & Bird
  • Nile crocodile
    • Usually eats animals
    • Allows bird to walk around its mouth
  • Crocodile bird
    • Cleans parasites in croc’s teeth
    • Removes and eats scraps of food
    • Eats harmful leeches and parasites
hermit crab sea anemone
Hermit Crab & Sea Anemone
  • Hermit crab
    • protects the crab
  • Sea anemone
    • Gets leftover food

http://www.ms-starship.com/sciencenew/symbiosis.htm

buffalo oxpecker
Buffalo & Oxpecker
  • Buffalo
    • Lets the bird eat
  • Oxpecker
    • Eats ticks and other parasites off skin
    • Warns buffalo of danger

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/enemies/partners.html

shark and remora fish
Shark and Remora Fish
  • Shark
    • Lets the fish eat
  • Remora Fish
    • Eats parasites
    • Gets the shark’s leftovers
lichen
Lichen
  • Slow growing plants
  • Partnership: fungi & algae
  • Neither could live alone
relationships
Relationships
  • Phoresis
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism
  • Parasitism
phoresis
Phoresis
  • Loose association
  • One organism is smaller than other
  • Larger organism used for transport
  • Dung beetles and cow dung
commensalism
Commensalism
  • “eating together at the same table”
  • Only one member benefits
    • sharing space, defense, shelter, food
  • Neither will die if relationship is ended
  • Shrimp & sea cucumber

http://www.ms-starship.com/sciencenew/symbiosis.htm

mutualism
Mutualism
  • Both organisms derive mutual benefit
  • Intimate and obligatory
  • Neither can survive without the other
  • Example – host and parasite
  • Tickbirds and rhinos
  • Clownfish & sea anemone
parasitism
Parasitism
  • Not symbiotic
  • Causes harm to host
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